When traditional secret image sharing techniques reconstructed the secret, they input the shares over t. While less than t shares can know nothing about the secret, the problem arises when there are more than t shares. The cheater can use this to put their share in the last. Therefore, fairness is a important objective of the secret image sharing. Tian et al. proposed the fairness secret sharing scheme in 2012. However, they generated v polynomials for one secret data and performed v-times to reconstruct the polynomial using Lagrange interpolation. Therefore, their scheme is unsuitableness in the real-time processing. The proposed scheme generates one polynomial for the one secret data based on the fairness concept of Tian et al.’s scheme. For the providing fairness, the proposed scheme hides the verification value at the random coefficient of the polynomial. During the secret image reconstruction procedure, each shadow image brought by a participant is verified for its fairness using XOR operation. Our scheme not only satisfies the fairness, but also is suitable for the real-time process. This helps to detect the participant from intentional provision of a false or cheating. In addition, our scheme uses the steganography technique for increasing the security protection purpose. The proposed scheme as a whole offers a high secure and effective mechanism for the secret image sharing that is not found in existing secret image sharing methods. In the experimental result, PSNR of the proposed scheme is average 44.67 dB. It is higher 4 dB than the previous schemes. The embedding capacity is also similar to the other schemes.
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Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
Source:Data in Brief
Author(s): Chounghun Kang, Woo Shik Shin, Dongwook Yeo, Wonchung Lim, Li Li Ji
The data presented in this article are related to the research paper entitled “Anti-inflammatory effect of avenanthramides via NF-κB pathways in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.”  This article includes experimental procedures used to analyze the mode of binding between and IkB kinase (IKKβ) and avenanthramides which are a group of phenolic alkaloids found in oats. The protein-ligand docking and the computer simulation method of molecular dynamics (MD) for studying the physical interactions of molecules were performed.
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Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
Source:Data in Brief
Author(s): T. Monyai, O.S.I. Fayomi, A.P.I. Popoola
In anticipation for resolution of deterioration catastrophe on metallic materials, researches in the field of corrosion remains. Zn-Ni-NbO2 deposits were obtained on mild steel substrate using D.C. power source. The thermal stability properties of the coatings were determined by micro-hardness evaluations before and after heat treatment at 250 and 350°C. The surface structure analysis was done by Scanning Electron Microscope and X-ray diffraction while the wear evaluations were obtained and compared. The weight gain and coating thickness were obtained and found to be in correlation with the wear results. The coating developed in this study is recommended for metallic surface improvement engineering applications.
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Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
Source:Data in Brief
Author(s): Rafia Rafique, Zahra Zahra, Nasar Virk, Muhammad Shahid, Eric Pinelli, Jean Kallerhoff, Tae Jung Park, Muhammad Arshad
In this study, the data sets and analyses provided the information on the characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), and their impacts on rhizosphere pH, and soil-bound phosphorus (P) availability to plants together with relevant parameters. For this purpose, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was cultivated in the TiO2 NPs amended soil over a period of 60 days. After harvesting, the soil and plants were analyzed to examine the rhizosphere pH, P availability in rhizosphere soil, uptake in roots and shoots, biomass produced, chlorophyll content and translocation to different plant parts monitored by SEM and EDX techniques in response to different dosages of TiO2 NPs. The strong relationship can be found among TiO2 NPs application, P availability, and plant growth.
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Phenotypic differences between closely related taxa or populations can arise through genetic variation or be environmentally induced, leading to altered transcription of genes during development. Comparative developmental studies of closely related species or variable populations within species can help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms related to evolutionary divergence and speciation. Studies of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and related salmonids have revealed considerable phenotypic variation among populations and in Arctic charr many cases of extensive variation within lakes (resource polymorphism) have been recorded. One example is the four Arctic charr morphs in the ∼10,000 year old Lake Thingvallavatn, which differ in numerous morphological and life history traits. We set out to investigate the molecular and developmental roots of this polymorphism by studying gene expression in embryos of three of the morphs reared in a common garden set-up. We performed RNA-sequencing, de-novo transcriptome assembly and compared gene expression among morphs during an important timeframe in early development, i.e., preceding the formation of key trophic structures. Expectedly, developmental time was the predominant explanatory variable. As the data were affected by some form of RNA-degradation even though all samples passed quality control testing, an estimate of 3′-bias was the second most common explanatory variable. Importantly, morph, both as an independent variable and as interaction with developmental time, affected the expression of numerous transcripts. Transcripts with morph effect, separated the three morphs at the expression level, with the two benthic morphs being more similar. However, Gene Ontology analyses did not reveal clear functional enrichment of transcripts between groups. Verification via qPCR confirmed differential expression of several genes between the morphs, including regulatory genes such as AT-Rich Interaction Domain 4A (arid4a) and translin (tsn). The data are consistent with a scenario where genetic divergence has contributed to differential expression of multiple genes and systems during early development of these sympatric Arctic charr morphs.
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The toxicity of engineered nanoparticles remains a concern. The knowledge of biohazards associated with particular nanoparticles is crucial to make this cutting-edge technology more beneficial and safe. Here, we evaluated the toxicity of Ga2O3 nanoparticles (NPs), which are frequently used to enhance the performance of metal catalysts in a variety of catalytic reactions. The potential inflammatory signaling associated with the toxicity of HA/β-Ga2O3:Cr3+ NPs in primary cortical neurons was examined. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis in neurons following various concentrations (0, 1, 5, 25, 50, 100 µg/ml) of HA/β-Ga2O3:Cr3+ NPs treatment. Consistently, constitutively active forms of calcineurin (48 kDa) were significantly elevated in cultured primary cortical neurons, which was consistent with calpain activation indicated by the breakdown products of spectrin. Moreover, HA/β-Ga2O3:Cr3+ NPs result in the elevation of LC3-II formation, SQSTM/p62, and Cathepsin B, whereas phosphorylation of CaMKII (Thr286) and Synapsin I (Ser603) were downregulated in the same context. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that calpain activation and a disturbance of autophagy signaling are evoked by exposure to HA/β-Ga2O3:Cr3+ NPs, which may contribute to neuronal injury in vitro.
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With the emergence of Next Generation Sequencing, major advances were made with regard to identifying viruses in natural environments. However, bioinformatical research on viruses is still limited because of the low amounts of viral DNA that can be obtained for analysis. To overcome this limitation, DNA is often amplified with multiple displacement amplification (MDA), which may cause an unavoidable bias. Here, we describe a case study in which the virome of a bioreactor is sequenced using Ion Torrent technology. DNA-spiking of samples is compared with MDA-amplified samples. DNA for spiking was obtained by amplifying a bacterial 16S rRNA gene. After sequencing, the 16S rRNA gene reads were removed by mapping to the Silva database. Three samples were tested, a whole genome from Enterobacteria P1 Phage and two viral metagenomes from an infected bioreactor. For one sample, the new DNA-spiking protocol was compared with the MDA technique. When MDA was applied, the overall GC content of the reads showed a bias towards lower GC%, indicating a change in composition of the DNA sample. Assemblies using all available reads from both MDA and the DNA-spiked samples resulted in six viral genomes. All six genomes could be almost completely retrieved (97.9%–100%) when mapping the reads from the DNA-spiked sample to those six genomes. In contrast, 6.3%–77.7% of three viral genomes was covered by reads obtained using the MDA amplification method and only three were nearly fully covered (97.4%–100%). This case study shows that DNA-spiking could be a simple and inexpensive alternative with very low bias for sequencing of metagenomes for which low amounts of DNA are available.
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