Otology & Neurotology

Comprehensive Analysis of Factors Leading to Poor Performance in Prelingual Cochlear Implant Recipients
Objective: To comprehensively analyze the prognostic factors responsible for affecting outcomes following cochlear implantation in prelinguals. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study from June 2004 to November 2015. Setting: Tertiary care center. Patients: Patients who had undergone cochlear implantation during June 2004 to November 2015 for prelingual sensorineural hearing loss with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Intervention: Patients were evaluated for the presence of 20 risk factors possibly influencing postimplantation outcomes using a questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures: Assessment for speech and auditory function was done at the last follow-up with speech intelligibility ratings (SIR) and categories of auditory performance (CAP) scores, respectively. Results: One hundred fifty-one patients were included in this study. On univariate analysis for CAP, age at implantation, noncompliance to pre and postimplantation auditory and speech habilitation, poor parental motivation, socioeconomic status and literacy were found to be associated with lower scores (p < 0.05). Whereas, for SIR, additionally, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and inner ear malformation were statistically significant negative predictors on univariate analysis. Finally, factors responsible for low CAP scores on multivariate analysis were poor parental literacy, poor socioeconomic status, irregular pre/postimplantation rehabilitation, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. While for SIR, additionally age at implantation was also a significant negative predictor. Increasing IQ and duration of implant use were associated with higher CAP (univariate) and SIR scores (univariate and multivariate) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We were able to demonstrate negative impact of higher age at implantation, minimal cognitive disorder, adverse parental/socioeconomic profile, and poor compliance to pre/postimplantation auditory verbal habilitation on auditory and speech outcomes. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Kapil Sikka, M.S., Associate Professor, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Teaching Block, 4th Floor, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, East, New Delhi 110029, India; E-mail: Kapil_sikka The authors disclose no conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2019 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company
Evaluating the Long-Term Hearing Outcomes of Cochlear Implant Users With Single-Sided Deafness
Objectives: To investigate the long-term outcomes of cochlear implantation in individuals with single-sided deafness (SSD) in terms of speech perception, subjective hearing performance, and sound localization. Methods: Thirty-four subjects with SSD were recruited across two large cochlear implant (CI) centers (Antwerp, Belgium and Perth, Australia). The long-term hearing outcomes (between 4 and 10 years of CI use) were evaluated using speech in noise tests, a subjective hearing performance questionnaire (Speech, Spatial and Qualities Questionnaire [SSQ12]), and sound localization tests. Results: Statistically significant improvements were observed in speech perception in noise and sound localization results postoperatively with the use of a CI in comparison to preoperative measurements. Subjective hearing abilities also significantly improved after long-term CI use. Conclusion: Access to binaural hearing is important for subjects with SSD. CI users with SSD experience long-term benefits in speech understanding, sound localization, and quality of life. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dayse Távora-Vieira, Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, 102 – 118 Murdoch Drive, Murdoch WA 6150, Australia; Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, Australia; E-mail: dayse.tavora The authors report no conflicts of interest Copyright © 2019 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company
Application of Kaizen Principles to a Large Cochlear Implant Practice: A Continuous Quality Improvement Initiative at Mayo Clinic
Objective: To remove barriers and improve access for patients seeking cochlear implantation. Study Design: Prospective quality improvement study at a large tertiary academic care center. Methods: A Kaizen quality improvement model was applied over the course of a year. Four weeklong meetings were used to identify areas for improvement and remediation. Data were collected at baseline, 90-days, and 1-year postcompletion of the project. Outcome measures included lead times, defined as the wait time between first contact with the clinic and the first appointment, and the wait time between surgery and activation, and cycle times defined as the total test time needed to determine cochlear implant candidacy, and total time needed to complete initial activation. The total inventory kept as clinic stock was also calculated Results: Kaizen team members collected data for each outcome measure. After the Kaizen principles were applied, the following outcomes were observed: median lead times between first contact with the clinic to candidacy testing, candidacy testing to surgery, and surgery to activation of the implant remained stable from baseline to 1-year follow-up. Median cycle time for candidacy testing decreased from 7.3 hours at baseline to 3.0 hours at 1-year follow-up. Cycle times for initial activation of the device did not change over time. The total inventory of clinic stock was reduced by 31%. Conclusions: Though outcomes for lead and cycle times varied, implementation of Kaizen principles was found to be an effective method for completing this quality improvement project at a large cochlear implant program overall. Level of Evidence: 3a Address correspondence and reprint requests to Douglas P. Sladen, Ph.D., Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Western Washington University, 516 High Street, Bellingham, WA 98225; E-mail: douglas.sladen This project was funded through a grant provided by MED EL GMBH. M.L.C. is a consultant for Advanced Bionics Corp., Cochlear Corp., and MED-EL GmbH. M.D.D. is a consultant for MED-EL GmbH. The authors disclose no conflicts of interest. Supplemental digital content is available in the text. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Website (http://journals.lww.com/otology-neurotology). Copyright © 2019 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company
Quality of Life in Jugular Paraganglioma Following Radiosurgery
Objective: The treatment paradigm for jugular paraganglioma (JP) has changed considerably over time with the wider adoption of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no published studies that use validated patient-reported outcome measures to ascertain quality of life (QoL) outcomes following SRS for JP when used in single or combined modality treatment regimens. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Adult patients with JP treated with primary SRS or SRS following primary surgery between 1990 and 2017. Interventions(S): Surgery and/or Gamma Knife SRS. Main Outcome Measures: Global and treatment-related QoL and differences in QoL based on treatment approach. Results: Sixty-nine surveys were distributed and a total of 26 completed surveys were received (38% response rate). Among respondents, the median age at SRS was 53 years and 16 of the 26 patients (62%) were female. Median follow-up was 97 months. Nineteen patients (73%) were treated with primary SRS or staged SRS following intentional subtotal resection (STR; hereafter referred to as “staged SRS”), while the remainder (n = 7, 27%) were treated with SRS for recurrent JP. Median physical and mental health QoL PROMIS-10 T-scores regardless of treatment strategy were 39.8 and 38.8, respectively, while median SF36 physical and mental component subscores were similar to national averages and non-tumor controls. When comparing general physical and mental health QoL scores, there was no significant difference between patients treated with primary or staged SRS and those treated with SRS for recurrent JP. However, age-adjusted swallowing function among patients treated with primary or staged SRS was better than in those patients treated with SRS for recurrent JP (p = 0.05). Conclusions: Patients treated with primary or staged SRS for JP tend to exhibit better swallowing outcomes than those treated with SRS for recurrent JP. However, the majority of overall and disease-specific quality of life measures were not different between groups. Based on the low incidence of new cranial neuropathy following SRS, it is likely that initial surgical morbidity is the primary contributor to this outcome. Disease-specific overall quality of life measures, akin to those already used for other benign skull base tumors, are necessary to better gauge physical and mental health outcomes following treatment for JP. Though limited by small sample size, this represents the first study to gauge QoL outcomes following treatment for JP. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Matthew L. Carlson, M.D., Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW, Rochester, MN 55905; E-mail: carlson.matthew Internal departmental funding was used without commercial sponsorship or support. Mayo Clinic IRB Approval 16-002291. Presented at the 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery Meeting, October 7–10, Atlanta, GA. The authors disclose no conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2019 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company
Bilateral Posterior Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Tends to Reoccur
Objective: We analyzed the clinical characteristics of quite a large cohort of patients with bilateral posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (bil-BPPV) with respect to the rate and types of recurrence. Study Design: Retrospective case review. Setting: Outpatient dizziness clinic. Patients: About 2,050 patients diagnosed with BPPV during the years 2003 to 2018 were reviewed. Results: Sixty (2.9%) were diagnosed with bil-BPPV. Fifty three (88%) were idiopathic and seven (12%) posttraumatic. Multiple BPPV episodes were encountered in 28 (47%) patients. Patients with bil-BPPV and multiple BPPV episodes were comparable with patients with a single attack of bil-BPPV except for older age and longer follow up. The most frequent type of recurrence following a bil-BPPV episode was posterior canal canalolithiasis (37.5%) and bil-BPPV (31.3%). Combined (posterior and horizontal) BPPV was encountered in 12.5% while horizontal canal involvement was found in only 7% of recurrences. Conclusions: The prevalence of bil-BPPV amongst all BPPV patients was lower than previously reported possibly due to stricter selection criteria. Older age and longer follow up of patients with multiple BPPV episodes than those with a single episode of bil-BPPV is in accordance with the theory of degenerative otoconia loosening. In contrast to the general consensus regarding random recurrences of BPPV side and subtypes, bil-BPPV recurred more frequently than expected. This might be the consequence of individual vulnerability to head movements, increased bone metabolism or an underlying vestibular pathology. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Lea Pollak, M.D., Kibutz Galuyot 4, Nes Ziona 74012, Israel; E-mail: lea.pollak The authors declare no funding sources or acknowledgments. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Copyright © 2019 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company
Serum Bilirubin Level as a Potential Marker for the Hearing Outcome in Severe-Profound Bilateral Sudden Deafness
Objective: To investigate the association of serum bilirubin level with hearing outcomes in bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss (BSSHL) patients. Participants: One hundred thirteen in-patient BSSHL patients were consecutively enrolled between July 2008 and December 2015 in a tertiary center. Main Outcome Measures: Multivariable linear regression, generalized estimating equations (GEE), and stratified analyses were applied to examine the association between serum bilirubin level and hearing outcome measures such as final hearing threshold and absolute and relative hearing gains in BSSHL. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, total bilirubin levels (TBIL) were observed to be positively and independently associated with hearing outcomes as measured by final hearing (β [95% confidence interval {CI}]: −1.5 [−2.7, −0.2] dB HL per 1 μmol/L increase in TBIL) and absolute and relative hearing gains (β [95% CI]: 1.4 [0.2, 2.7] dB and 1.6 [0.2, 3.1] dB, respectively) in the severe to profound hearing loss subpopulation. Conclusions: Higher TBIL levels, within the normal or mildly elevated ranges, were independently and significantly associated with better hearing outcome in BSSHL patients with severe to profound hearing loss. Given bilirubin elevation treatments exist, our finding suggests a novel pharmacological strategy for this specific subpopulation. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. wqcr301 Source of Funding: The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.81530032 and No.81500794), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (No.2014CB943001), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2017M613326) and the New Researcher Foundation of the PLA General Hospital (No. 14KMZ04). The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Supplemental digital content is available in the text. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Website (http://journals.lww.com/otology-neurotology). Copyright © 2019 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company
Incus Necrosis and Blood Supply: A Micro-CT and Synchrotron Imaging Study
Background: Incus necrosis is a common complication following stapes surgery and is associated with impaired microcirculation. The objective of this study was to investigate the vascular anatomy of the human incus by using light microscopy, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and synchrotron phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI) for a novel three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the middle ear, mucosal folds, major vascular pathways, and intraosseous vascular bone channels. Methods: One-hundred-and-fifty temporal bones from the Uppsala collection were analyzed under light microscopy. Twenty temporal bones underwent high-resolution micro-CT scanning, and an additional seven specimens underwent SR-PCI at the Canadian Lightsource in Saskatoon, Canada. One of these specimens was from an individual who had undergone stapes surgery. Data were processed with volume-rendering software to create 3D reconstructions using scalar opacity mapping for bone transparency, cropping, and soft tissue analyses. Results: Micro-CT and SR-PCI with 3D rendering revealed the extensive vascular plexus within the un-decalcified incus bone communicating with the exterior surface. The relationship between the vessels, lenticular process, and incudostapedial joint were clearly observed. SR-PCI allowed for histologic-level detail while preserving the specimen and its 3D relationships. Conclusion: SR-PCI with 3D reconstructions confirmed the main vascular supply to the lenticular process along the intraosseous lenticular vessels. This is the first synchrotron analysis of a patient having undergone stapes surgery, and it suggests that incus necrosis associated with stapes surgery may be caused by a disruption of the lenticular blood flow induced by the prosthesis loop, and not by strangulation of mucosal vessels as has been previously described. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Helge Rask-Andersen, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Surgical Sciences, Head and Neck Surgery, Section of Otolaryngology, and Departments of Otolaryngology, Uppsala University Hospital, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden; E-mail: helge.rask-andersen H.M.L., H.R.-A., and S.A. are co-senior authors. Funding: This study was supported by ALF grants from Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala University and by the Foundation of “Tysta Skolan,” the Swedish Deafness Foundation (Hörselskadades Riksförbund – HRF), the Ingrid Löwenström Foundation. Part of the research described in this article was performed at the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility at the Canadian Light Source, which is funded by the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the National Research Council Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Government of Saskatchewan, the Western Economic Diversification Canada, and the University of Saskatchewan. The authors disclose no conflicts of interest. Supplemental digital content is available in the text. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Website (http://journals.lww.com/otology-neurotology). Copyright © 2019 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company
From Mid 16th Century French Court to End 18th Century Danish Court: The Fatal Power of the Mammillary Process
Objectives/Hypothesis: Two Royal events marked the history of the mastoid process between the 16th and 18th centuries. The first was the death of François II, King of France, following a complication of a chronic running left ear at the age of 16 years, and the second the death of Justus von Berger, Court physician of Christian VII, King of Denmark, after a trepanation of the mastoid process to heal his right-sided deafness at the age of 68 years. The aim of this study is to analyze these two events again with only original references and to replace them in their historical context. Method: Historical review of original literature dealing with the subject. Results/Conclusion: These two Royal events marked the history of the mastoid process, but they were unlikely to have been avoided during their specific era. Medical knowledge was insufficient to avoid these fatal outcomes. Because of their societal impact, they were known of and largely discussed, notably in the medical world, leading to the eventual modification of medical practice during that time. François II’s death had no medical impact but von Berger’s death practically stopped, for more than a half century, the development of mastoid surgery. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Albert Mudry, M.D., Ph.D., School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5739; E-mail: amudry The author discloses no conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2019 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company
Datalogging Statistics and Speech Recognition During the First Year of Use in Adult Cochlear Implant Recipients
Objective: To examine device datalogging characteristics and postoperative speech recognition performance in adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Study Design: Retrospective study examining datalogging characteristics throughout the first year of device use and postoperative speech recognition outcomes measured at 1 year. Patients: One hundred seventy-seven adults who received a Cochlear CI. Main Outcome Measures: Average values for environmental scene classification (hours of device use per day, and percent of hours per day in quiet, noise, and speech) as reported by Cochlear datalogging over the first year of device use. Speech recognition was assessed at 1 year postactivation. Results: During the first year of devices use, CI listeners >80 years of age used their device significantly less (average = 10.97 h/d) than the youngest adult listeners (18–30 yrs), who used their device an average of 13.29 hours/d. There was no consistent effect of age on the number of hours a CI user listened to speech in noise each day. Correlational and regression analyses suggest that the number of average hours of device use is the primary factor that accounts for variance observed in postoperative consonant-nucleus-consonant word scores. Conclusion: Results suggest that the average number of hours listening to speech in noise is not related to postoperative performance, but the average number of hours of device use per day is correlated with postoperative performance. Further research is needed to determine if these findings are merely correlational or causal in nature. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Kara C. Schvartz-Leyzac, Au.D., Ph.D., Hearing Rehabilitation Center, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Michigan Health Systems, 475 West Market Place, Building 1, Suite A, Ann Arbor, MI 48108; E-mail: kleyzac The authors disclose no conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2019 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company
Episodic Vestibular Symptoms in Children With a Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: A Case Series
Objective: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss in children. Although cCMV-induced vestibular loss is demonstrated in several studies, the occurrence of vertigo has been described in only two cases to date. The aim of this paper is to discuss the underlying pathophysiology of recurrent vestibular symptoms in children with cCMV, based on five cases investigated in our center and an extensive research of the literature. Study Design: Retrospective case series. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: This case series describes five pediatric cCMV-patients (three boys, two girls). Four of them were symptomatic at birth, one was asymptomatic. Three patients underwent cochlear implantation. The age of onset of the vestibular symptoms varied from 2;0 to 7;3 years of age. Intervention: None. Main Outcome Measures: Details regarding the patient history and results of cranial imaging, audiological, vestibular, and neurological assessments were collected retrospectively. Results: The selected cases suffered from recurrent vestibular symptoms. All patients had delayed onset, fluctuating, and/or progressive hearing loss. In all cases, the attacks were accompanied with nausea and vomiting and occurred without clear-cut trigger. Migraine and epilepsy often were proposed as first diagnosis, although they could not be confirmed eventually. Four out of five patients were diagnosed with a peripheral vestibular deficit. Conclusions: Diagnosis of vestibular symptoms in children with cCMV is complex, given the multiple morbidities than can occur. Peripheral vestibular causes should be considered in the diagnosis, as important vestibular deficits are demonstrated in this population. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Cleo Dhondt, M.Sc., Department of Head and Skin, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent University, Corneel Heymanslaan 10 (1P1), B – 9000 Ghent, Belgium; E-mail: Cleo.Dhondt@UGent.be This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors disclose no conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2019 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182

6948891480
alsfakia

Otology & Neurotology

Higher Education

Correction to: The Role of Family Support in Facilitating Academic Success of Low-Income Students
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the acknowledgement section. Some of the vital information is missing in the published article. The complete information is presented with this erratum.
Fractions in College: How Basic Math Remediation Impacts Community College Students

Abstract

This study investigates the link between basic math skills, remediation, and the educational opportunity and outcomes of community college students. Capitalizing on a unique placement policy in one community college that assigns students to remedial coursework based on multiple math skill cutoffs, I first identify the skills that most commonly inhibit student access to higher-level math courses; these are procedural fluency with fractions and the ability to solve word problems. I then estimate the impact of “just missing” these skill cutoffs using multiple rating-score regression discontinuity design. Missing just one fractions question on the placement diagnostic, and therefore starting college in a lower-level math course, had negative effects on college persistence and attainment. Missing other skill cutoffs did not have the same impacts. The findings suggest the need to reconsider the specific math expectations that regulate access to college math coursework.

Does Inducing Students to Schedule Lecture Watching in Online Classes Improve Their Academic Performance? An Experimental Analysis of a Time Management Intervention

Abstract

Time management skills are an essential component of college student success, especially in online classes. Through a randomized control trial of students in a for-credit online course at a public 4-year university, we test the efficacy of a scheduling intervention aimed at improving students’ time management. Results indicate the intervention had positive effects on initial achievement scores; students who were given the opportunity to schedule their lecture watching in advance scored about a third of a standard deviation better on the first quiz than students who were not given that opportunity. These effects are concentrated in students with the lowest self-reported time management skills. However, these effects diminish over time such that we see a marginally significant negative effect of treatment on the last week’s quiz grade and no difference in overall course scores. We examine the effect of the intervention on plausible mechanisms to explain the observed achievement effects. We find no evidence that the intervention affected cramming, procrastination, or the time at which students did work.

The Role of Family Support in Facilitating Academic Success of Low-Income Students

Abstract

While college education is a key to upward mobility, low-income students are substantially less likely to earn bachelor’s degrees than their more economically advantaged peers. Prior higher education literature illuminates various factors contributing to student success, but few studies consider the role of family support after students enter higher education. We examine how two different forms of family support—emotional and financial—are related to academic outcomes (grades, credit accumulation, and persistence) among low-income college students. Our analyses, based on a sample of 728 first-year low-income students attending eight four-year institutions, indicate that family emotional support plays an important role in fostering positive academic outcomes. Family emotional support is beneficial for academic outcomes as it promotes psychological well-being and facilitates greater student engagement. Financial support is not related to the outcomes examined in the sample as a whole. However, interaction models point to variation by first-generations status wherein continuing-generation students benefit more from family financial support than their first-generation peers. Presented findings offer valuable insights into the role of families in supporting low-income students in college and can inform institutional policies and practices aimed at facilitating their success.

Can Transfer Guides Improve the Uptake of Major Prerequisites? Evidence from Ohio’s Transfer and Articulation Policy Reform

Abstract

This study investigates the use of transfer guides to help students identify transferrable prerequisite credits for academic majors. Employing administrative data of students enrolled in Ohio community colleges, I examine the impact of these curricular roadmaps, called Transfer Assurance Guides (TAG), which were featured in reforms of the state’s articulation policy. Leveraging variation in the availability of TAGs as a natural experiment, I estimate the impact of these guides on prerequisite course-taking in the fields of history, business, and economics. I also consider whether the effect varies for first-year students compared to returning students. I find that effects on prerequisite course-taking differed across academic majors, and the effects were lower for students enrolled in their first year compared to returning students. The findings suggest that transfer guides may affect student course-taking, but the impact is small and varies by the preparedness level of students.

Framing and Labeling Effects in Preferences for Borrowing for College: An Experimental Analysis

Abstract

Evidence from behavioral economics suggests that the framing and labeling of choices affect financial decisions. Through a randomized control trial of over six thousand high school seniors, community college students, and adults without a college degree, we identify the existence of both framing and labeling effects in respondents’ preferences for borrowing for postsecondary education. How financially equivalent contracts are framed alters the preferences of high school and community college students. Furthermore, simply labeling a contract a “loan” reduces the likelihood of selecting that option by 8–11 percentage points among those samples. These effects are more pronounced among Black high school respondents and Hispanic high school and community college respondents who are both twice as likely as White respondents to avoid the loan option when it is labeled a “loan.” Finally, we provide suggestive evidence that this labeling effect is driven by more risk averse respondents. Our findings imply that the federal government, states, and institutions should be attentive to the language used when offering and explaining financial aid packages for higher education.

Connecting School and Home: Examining Parental and School Involvement in Readiness for College Through Multilevel SEM

Abstract

Parental involvement is widely acknowledged as a critical factor influencing the college choice process among families. What is not clear, though, is whether this parental driven factor also takes place at the school level along with school related factors. Using a national sample of 9th grade students drawn from about 900 schools, we found that parental involvement also operates at the school context along with a high school’s academic press. Moreover, at both individual- and school-level contexts, parental involvement creates a “college-going” cultural capital in the form of attainment of milestones towards college.

Parenting on the Path to the Professoriate: A Focus on Graduate Student Mothers

Abstract

This study presents new findings on tenure-track job outcomes for mothers who parented children during graduate school. Using NSF Survey of Earned Doctorates (2000–2005) and Survey of Doctorate Recipients data (2000–2013), I explore how PhD mothers’ accumulation of career-related resources in graduate school influences their likelihood of attaining tenure-track jobs.

The Impact of an Interest-Major Fit Signal on College Major Certainty

Abstract

Students’ choice of college major is related to their interests (Porter and Umbach in Res High Educ 47:429–449, 2006), and students whose major is well-aligned with their interests are more likely to persist in that major (Allen and Robbins in Res Higher Educ 49(1):62–79, 2008) and complete a college degree in a timely manner (Allen and Robbins in J Couns Psychol 51(1):23–35, 2010). This study investigates whether a specific signal (i.e., Low, Medium, or High fit) that high school students receive about the alignment between their initial choice of planned major and their measured interests has an impact on the subsequent certainty of their initial choice of planned major. A regression discontinuity design was used to investigate the stability/increase in planned major certainty across two ACT administrations for students with Medium versus Low fit and High versus Medium fit. Results did not provide evidence that the signal is effective; possible explanations and recommended future research are discussed.

Examining the Relationship Between 2-year College Entry and Baccalaureate Aspirants’ Academic and Labor Market Outcomes: Impacts, Heterogeneity, and Mechanisms

Abstract

Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), this paper analyzes students’ baccalaureate attainment and early labor market performance, comparing 2-year college and 4-year institution entrants and exploring the potential heterogeneous treatment effects of initiating one’s college experience in a 2-year college by individual pre-college academic preparation. Utilizing propensity score matching on a rich set of student demographic characteristics, academic and high school attributes, we find that 2-year college entry sharply reduces baccalaureate aspirants’ likelihood of earning a baccalaureate, and such negative effects are particularly pronounced for students in the highest quartile of pre-college math ability. In terms of labor market outcomes, female 2-year college entrants are less likely to gain full-time employment, as compared to their female 4-year institution counterparts. We also examine various mechanisms that may hinder 2-year college entrants’ baccalaureate completion, including the impact of 2-year college attendance on early academic progress, challenges of the transfer process, loss of credits at the point of transfer, and post-transfer academic shock. Our results provide suggestive evidence in support of all four mechanisms.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182

6948891480
alsfakia

Higher Education

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emission from wetland rice paddies with reference to global warming potential

Abstract

Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are two important greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute largely to global warming and climate change. The impact of physiological characteristics of rice genotypes on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is not well documented. A 2-year field experiment was conducted with eight summer rice varieties: Dinanath, Joymoti, Kanaklata, Swarnabh, IR 64, Tapaswami (modern varieties), Number 9, and Jagilee Boro (indigenous varieties) for two successive seasons (December–June, 2015–2016 and December–June, 2016–2017) to estimate their GWP and GHGI. The GWP of the rice varieties ranged from 841.52 to 1288.67 kg CO2-equiv. ha−1 and GHGI from 0.184 to 0.854 kg CO2-equiv. kg−1 grain yield. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in seasonal GHG emission, GWP, GHGI, CEE (carbon equivalent emission), photosynthetic efficiency, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and grain productivity among the rice varieties were observed during the investigation. A good correlation of GWP (p < 0.01) was recorded with rate of stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of the varieties. The present study reveals a strong relationship between plant biomass (p < 0.01) with GWP and CEE of the rice varieties. The variety IR 64 and Number 9 are identified as the most suitable variety with lowest GWP (909.85 and 876.68 kg CO2-equiv. ha−1 respectively) and GHGI (0.192 and 0.227 kg CO2-equiv. kg−1 grain yield respectively) accompanied by higher grain productivity (4839 and 3867 kg ha−1 respectively). Observations from the study suggest that agricultural productivity and GHG mitigation can be simultaneously achieved by proper selection of rice genotypes.

Optimisation of bioscrubber systems to simultaneously remove methane and purify wastewater from intensive pig farms

Abstract

The use of bioscrubber is attracting increasing attention for exhaust gas treatment in intensive pig farming. However, the challenge is to improve the methane (CH4) removal efficiency as well as the possibility of pig house wastewater treatment. Three laboratory-scale bioscrubbers, each equipped with different recirculation water types, livestock wastewater (10-times-diluted pig house wastewater supernatant), a methanotroph growth medium (10-times-diluted), and tap water, were established to evaluate the performance of CH4 removal and wastewater treatment. The results showed that enhanced CH4 removal efficiency (25%) can be rapidly achieved with improved methanotrophic activity due to extra nutrient support from the wastewater. The majority of the CH4 was removed in the middle to end part of the bioscrubbers, which indicated that CH4 removal could be potentially optimised by extending the length of the reactor. Moreover, 52–86% of the ammonium (NH4+-N), total organic carbon (TOC), and phosphate (PO43−-P) removal were simultaneously achieved with CH4 removal in the present study. Based on these results, this study introduces a low-cost and simple-to-operate method to improve CH4 removal and simultaneously treat pig farm wastewater in bioscrubbers.

Ambient air pollution and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Chinese

Abstract

We performed a time series analysis to investigate the potential association between exposure to ambient air pollution and type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence in the Chinese population. Monthly time series data between 2008 and 2015 on ambient air pollutants and incident T2D (N = 25,130) were obtained from the Environment Monitoring Center of Ningbo and the Chronic Disease Surveillance System of Ningbo. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of incident T2D per 10 μg/m3 increases in ambient air pollutants were estimated from Poisson generalized additive models. Exposure to particulate matter < 10 μm (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) was associated with increased T2D incidence. The relative risks (RRs) of each increment in 10 μg/m3 of PM10 and SO2 were 1.62 (95% CI, 1.16–2.28) and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.12–2.38) for overall participants, whereas for ozone (O3) exposure, the RRs were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.68–0.90) for overall participants, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.69–0.90) for males, and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67–0.91) for females, respectively. Exposure to PM10 and SO2 is positively associated with T2D incidence, whereas O3 is negatively associated with T2D incidence.

The relief effects of organic acids on Scirpus triqueter L. under pyrene–lead stress

Abstract

During phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals, the phytoremediation plants are often stressed by pollutants, which would reduce the efficiency of phytoremediation. The addition of organic acids from root exudates could alleviate the stress. In this study, three organic acids (citric acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid) were added to investigate the effects of organic acids on the stress response of Scirpus triqueter L. at two pyrene–lead concentrations. The activities of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, plasma membrane H+-ATPase, and vacuolar H+-ATPase and PPase activity, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) in Scirpus triqueter L. were determined. The addition of organic acids could effectively reduce the activities of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, plasma membrane H+-ATPase, and vacuolar H+-ATPase and PPase activities. Under higher pollution, the damage of plant plasma membrane is more serious, but the addition of citric acid can alleviate this situation and even more effective than the relief under low pollution. The effect of citric acid was more significant than that of succinic acid and glutaric acid. These results demonstrated that organic acids could attenuate the stress of pyrene and lead to Scirpus triqueter L.

The release mechanism of heavy metals from lab-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands treating road runoff

Abstract

Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been applied to remediate heavy metal pollution effectively in practice. However, the heavy metal release from CWs has not been paid enough attention. In this study, a 5-month experiment was carried out with three parallel lab-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) with zeolites as fillers. The artificial rainwater was pumped into VFCWs to study the release characteristic and mechanisms of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, and Pb). The results showed that significant amounts of Zn and Cu were released from the VFCWs at the end of the experiment while Pb and Cr rarely escaped. The upper layer (0–30 cm) of the VFCWs was the most effective area for heavy metal removal due to the presence of sediments, but it was also the most active area for heavy metal release. To explain this result, the sediments were analyzed before and after being leached by the tap water. The results indicated that Zn and Cu existed mainly in the exchangeable state, and they had strong leachability and bioavailability, causing its releases. Also, competitive adsorption of different metals meant that the metal ions with strong adsorption to zeolite caused the metal ions with weak adsorption to be desorbed from zeolites, and thus, a large amount of Zn escaped from VFCWs. The escape of heavy metals from CWs illustrated that it should be paid more attention in the management.

Concentration, spatiotemporal distribution, and sources of mercury in Mt. Yulong, a remote site in southeastern Tibetan Plateau

Abstract

The unique geographic location of Mt. Yulong in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) makes it a favorable site for mercury (Hg) study. Various snow samples, such as surface snow, snow pit, and snowmelt water were collected from Mt. Yulong in the southeastern TP. The average concentration of Hg was found to be 37 ± 26 ng L−1 (mean ± SD), comparable to Hg concentration from other parts of TP in the same year, though it was comparatively higher than those from previous years, suggesting a possible increase of Hg concentration over the TP. The concentration of Hg was higher in the lower elevation of the glaciers possibly due to the surface melting concentration of particulates. Higher concentration of Hg was observed in the fresh snow, suggesting the possibility of long-range transportation. The average concentration of Hg from the snow pit was 1.49 ± 0.78 ng L−1, and the concentration of Hg in the vertical profile of the snow pit co-varied with calcium ion (Ca2+) supporting the fact that the portion of Hg is from the crustal origin. In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the source of Hg is from the crustal origin; however, the presence of anthropogenic source in the Mt. Yulong was also observed. In surface water around Mt. Yulong, the concentration of HgT was found in the order of Lashihai Lake > Reservoirs > Rivers > Swamps > Luguhu Lake. In lake water, the concentration of HgT showed an increasing trend with depth. Overall, the increased concentration of Hg in recent years from the TP can be of concern and may have an adverse impact on the downstream ecosystem, wildlife, and human health.

Evaluation of management procedures for a length-frequency data-limited fishery

Abstract

Management procedures (MPs) based on data-limited methods (DLMs) recently developed to give management advices for data-limited stocks worldwide are scarce or yet to be implemented on freshwater species. In this study, case studies (CSs) were developed using length-frequency data (LFD) of common carp species harvested from Dianshan Lake to estimate life-history parameters from existing methods. These CSs were later used to examine their influences when tested with various MPs under scenarios when operating models (OMs) were subjected to observation and estimation uncertainties. The results after management strategy evaluation (MSE) was run for various defined OMs showed that three MPs emerged best for providing managing advice. For high yield to be maintained during short-term periods, MinlenLopt1 suggested the smallest length at full retention (sLFR) to be 42.11 cm; while Slotlim and matlenlim2 suggested that to maintain biomass and stable spawning biomass (SBMSY) and also avoid overfishing from occurring in this fishery, sLFR should be 56.1 cm. Values given by these MPs allowed the removal of species that spawned at least once. Also, life-history parameters derived from CS4 presented the best results, being more reliable in presenting better inputs for effective management of the said fishery.

Remediation of cobalt-polluted soil after application of selected substances and using oat ( Avena sativa L.)

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of soil application of manure, clay, charcoal, zeolite, and calcium oxide in remediation of soil polluted with cobalt (0, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 mg Co kg−1 of soil). The following were determined: weight of harvested plants as well as the content of cobalt in grain, straw, and roots of oat. In addition, tolerance index (Ti), cobalt bioconcentration (BCF), translocation (TF), and transfer (TFr) coefficients were derived. In the series without amendments, the increasing doses of cobalt had a significant effect by decreasing the yields of oat grain and straw and the mass of its roots. Also, lower tolerance index values were noted in the objects polluted with cobalt, especially with its highest dose. The application of manure had the strongest effect on increasing the mass of particular organs of the test plant, while the application of charcoal led to a significant decrease in this respect. The application of all substances to the soil, and especially manure and calcium oxide, resulted in higher tolerance index Ti values. The growing contamination of soil with cobalt caused a significant increase in the content of this element in oat and in the values of the translocation coefficient, in contrast to the effects noted with respect to the bioconcentration and transfer coefficients. All the substances applied to soil reduced the content of cobalt and its bioconcentration in oat straw, in opposition to grain and roots, limited its translocation, but elevated the transfer of this element from soil to plants. Soil contamination with cobalt promoted the accumulation of lead and copper in grain, cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, manganese, and iron in straw, as well as cadmium, nickel, zinc, and manganese in oat roots. As the cobalt dose increased, the content of other trace elements in oat organs either decreased or did not show any unambiguous changes. Of all the tested substances, the strongest influence on the content of trace elements was produced by calcium oxide in straw and roots and by zeolite in roots, whereas the weakest effect was generated by manure in oat grain. Oat is not the best plant for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with cobalt.

Target and non-target botanical pesticides effect of Trichodesma indicum (Linn) R. Br. and their chemical derivatives against the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.

Abstract

The effects of crude ethanol derived leaf extract Trichodesma indicum (Linn) (Ex-Ti) and their chief derivatives were accessed on the survival and development of the dengue mosquito Ae. aegypti also their non-toxic activity against mosquito predator. T. indicum is recognized to be the vital weed plant and a promising herb in the traditional ayurvedic medicine. In this study, the GC-MS chromatogram of Ex-Ti showed higher peak area percentage for cis-10-Heptadecenoic acid (21.83%) followed by cycloheptadecanone (14.32%). The Ex-Ti displayed predominant mortality in larvae with 96.45 and 93.31% at the prominent dosage (200 ppm) against III and IV instar. Correspondingly, sub-lethal dosage against the enzymatic profile of III and IV instar showed downregulation of α,β-carboxylesterase and SOD protein profiles at the maximum concentration of 100 ppm. However, enzyme level of GST as well as CYP450 increased significantly dependent on sub-lethal concentration. Likewise, fecundity and hatchability of egg rate of dengue mosquito decreased to the sub-lethal concentration of Ex-Ti. Repellent assay illustrates that Ex-Ti concentration had greater protection time up to 210 min at 100 ppm. Also, activity of Ex-Ti on adult mosquito displayed 100% mortality at the maximum dosage of 600, 500 and 400 ppm within the period of 50, 60 and 70 min, respectively. Photomicrography screening showed that lethal dosage of Ex-Ti (100 ppm) produced severe morphological changes with dysregulation in their body parts as matched to the control. Effects of Ex-Ti on the Toxorhynchites splendens IV instar larvae showed less mortality (43.47%) even at the maximum dosage of 1500 ppm as matched to the chemical pesticide Temephos. Overall, the present research adds a toxicological valuation on the Ex-Ti and their active constituents as a larvicidal, repellent and adulticidal agents against the global burdening dengue mosquito.

Integrated lipid production, CO 2 fixation, and removal of SO 2 and NO from simulated flue gas by oleaginous Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Abstract

CO2, SO2, and NO are the main components of flue gas and can cause serious environmental issues. Utilization of these compounds in oleaginous microalgae cultivation not only could reduce air pollution but could also produce feedstock for biodiesel production. However, the continuous input of SO2 and NO inhibits microalgal growth. In this study, the toxicity of simulated flue gas (15% CO2, 0.03% SO2, and 0.03% NO, balanced with N2) was reduced through automatic pH feedback control. Integrated lipid production and CO2 fixation with the removal of SO2 and NO was achieved. Using this technique, a lipid content of 38.0% DW was achieved in Chlorella pyrenoidosa XQ-20044. The lipid composition and fatty acid profile indicated that lipid production by C. pyrenoidosa XQ-20044 cultured with flue gas is suitable as a biodiesel feedstock; 81.2% of the total lipids were neutral lipids and 99.5% of the total fatty acids were C16 and C18. The ratio of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids in the microalgal lipid content was 74.5%. In addition, CO2, SO2, and NO from the simulated flue gas were fixed and converted to biomass and lipids with a removal efficiency of 95.9%, 100%, and 84.2%, respectively. Furthermore, the utilization efficiencies of CO2, SO2, and NO were equal to or very close to their removal efficiencies. These results provide a novel strategy for combining biodiesel production with biofixation of flue gas.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182

6948891480
alsfakia

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Behavioral Medicine

Moderation of Mood in the Transfer of Self-Regulation From an Exercise to an Eating Context: Short- and Long-Term Effects on Dietary Change and Obesity in Women

Abstract

Background

Behavioral obesity treatments require an improved understanding of the dynamics of associated psychological changes. This study aimed to clarify previous research on self-regulatory skills’ transfer from an exercise to eating context, effects of mood on self-regulatory strength, and related effects on a targeted eating behavior.

Methods

Women with obesity participated in a yearlong community-based cognitive-behavioral treatment that first focused on self-regulatory skills development for exercise maintenance, then use of similar self-regulatory skills and improved mood to facilitate short- and long-term increases in fruit/vegetable intake and reduction in weight. Groups were based on high (≥ 5% of baseline weight; n = 51) and low (< 5%; n = 49) weight reduction 2 years post-initiation.

Results

Improvements in eating self-regulation and fruit/vegetable intake were greatest in the high weight-reduction group. Using lagged variable analyses to assess directionality, mood significantly moderated the prediction of eating self-regulation change by exercise self-regulation change. The effect of increased exercise self-regulation on fruit/vegetable intake change over 6 months was significantly mediated by eating self-regulation change. Participants’ initial weight moderated the effect of eating self-regulation change on fruit/vegetable intake. Change in eating self-regulation over 6 months predicted self-regulation at 24 months. Short-term change in fruit/vegetable intake predicted weight change over 2 years through its association with long-term fruit/vegetable consumption.

Conclusions

Findings supported the expected carry-over of self-regulation from an exercise to eating context, mood effects on self-regulatory strength, and associations of exercise with eating and weight changes via effects on psychological variables. Results have implications for sustained effects associated with behavioral treatments.

Pre-surgical Caregiver Burden and Anxiety Are Associated with Post-Surgery Cortisol over the Day in Caregivers of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients

Abstract

Background

The relationship between pre-surgical distress and diurnal cortisol following surgery has not been investigated prospectively in caregivers of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients before. We aimed to examine the relationship between pre-surgical anxiety and caregiver burden and diurnal cortisol measured 2 months after the surgery in the caregivers of CABG patients.

Method

We used a sample of 103 caregivers of elective CABG patients that were assessed 28.86 days before and 60.94 days after patients’ surgery. Anxiety and caregiver burden were assessed using the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Oberst Burden Scale respectively. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and diurnal cortisol slope. Anxiety and caregiver burden were entered into linear regression models simultaneously.

Results

While high levels of pre-surgical anxiety were positively associated with increased follow-up levels of AUCg (β = 0.30, p = 0.001), greater pre-surgery perceived burden score was associated with steeper cortisol slope (β = 0.27, p = 0.017) after controlling for a wide range of covariates.

Conclusion

These outcomes support the utility of psychological interventions aimed to increase the awareness of caregiving tasks and demands in informal caregivers.

Sleep Quality and Inflammation in Married Heterosexual Couples: an Actor-Partner Analysis

Abstract

Background

Subjective sleep quality is a predictor of important health outcomes, but little work has examined the social context of sleep that might inform theoretical models and intervention approaches. The present study tested actor-partner models of sleep quality and its links to inflammatory markers.

Method

Participants were 84 middle-age to older adult heterosexual married couples who completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and had blood drawn for determination of CRP and IL-6 levels.

Results

Main results indicated that only actor levels of poor global sleep quality predicted higher CRP levels. No actor × partner or gender × actor/partner interactions were significant. These results were also not moderated by relationship quality. Secondary analyses, focused on the different components of sleep quality, revealed marginally significant evidence for partner’s poor sleep (i.e., sleep disturbances, sleep latency) on one’s own inflammatory outcomes.

Conclusion

These results suggest the promise of modeling sleep quality as a dyadic process that can impact inflammation and potentially related health outcomes.

Physical Activity After Breast Cancer Surgery: Does Depression Make Exercise Feel More Effortful than It Actually Is?

Abstract

Background

Prior to treatment, breast cancer patients are less physically fit compared to peers; during cancer treatment, their fitness typically declines. Depressive symptoms are associated with reduced activity up to 5 years post-treatment, but research has not identified mechanisms linking depression and lower activity. The current study assessed relationships among breast cancer patients’ depression and perceived exertion during exercise as well as heart rate, an objective indicator of exertion.

Methods

Participants were 106 breast cancer patients, stages I–IIIA, who completed surgery but had not started adjuvant treatment. Heart rate and self-rated exertion, measured using the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion, were assessed every 2 min during a graded exercise test. Depression was assessed using the CES-D and a structured clinical interview.

Results

Compared to women below the CES-D clinical cutoff, women with significant depressive symptoms reported steeper increases in exertion during the exercise test (p = .010) but had similar heart rates (p = .224) compared to women below the cutoff. Major depression history was unrelated to perceived exertion (ps > .224) and heart rate (ps > .200) during exercise.

Conclusions

Women with currently elevated depressive symptoms experienced exercise as more difficult compared to women below the CES-D cutoff, but these self-perceptions did not reflect actual heart rate differences. Depression may make exercise feel more demanding, which could ultimately decrease patients’ likelihood of engaging in regular exercise. Results support the use of depression screening tools following breast cancer surgery to identify and intervene on individuals at risk for decreased physical activity during survivorship.

Young Thai People’s Exposure to Alcohol Portrayals in Society and the Media: A Qualitative Study for Policy Implications

Abstract

Background

Although previous quantitative studies have documented the association between exposure to alcohol portrayals and drinking attitudes in Western countries, few qualitative studies have explored this matter in Thailand. A better understanding of the association in young Thais is required for a more efficient alcohol policy development. This study aims to explore the information young Thais have learnt from exposure to alcohol portrayals in society and the media, examine how this exposure shapes their drinking attitudes, and investigate the alignment of policy-makers’ views on drinking with those of young people.

Methods

Two qualitative research methods were employed. Seventy-two university students (38 men, 34 women) aged 20–24 participated in focus groups conducted on campus. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with academia, civil society and representatives from government who were involved in alcohol policy. Recorded data were transcribed verbatim, systematically coded and analysed using content analysis.

Results

Young Thais were regularly exposed to alcohol portrayals, particularly on social media and in their social environment. Being increasingly exposed to alcohol portrayals, particularly on social media, and the role of the alcohol industry emerged as concerning matters to the academia and civil society sectors. In response to the concerns, the government social media monitoring and alcohol censorship had become more challenging.

Conclusions

This study reflects the growing concerns from academia and civil society sectors of the impacts of increased alcohol exposure and the role that the industry may have on young people’s drinking attitudes. It highlights the need for response to significant policy challenges to reduce these impacts.

Perceptions of Physical Activity Promotion, Transportation Support, Physical Activity, and Body Mass: an Insight into Parent-Child Dyadic Processes

Abstract

Background

Socio-ecological models indicate that family, school, and community environment explains children’s physical activity and body weight. This study investigated whether parental perceptions of school/community-based physical activity (PA) promotion programs as well as parental and child perceptions of parental instrumental support for child PA (transportation provision) would predict child body weight. Child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was hypothesized to mediate these associations.

Method

Data of 879 parent-child dyads were collected at two measurement points: the baseline (T1) and the 7–8-month follow-up (T2). Parents were 23–68 years old (83.3% women), while children were 5–11 years old (52.4% girls). Parents and children reported their perceptions of environment, support (T1), and MVPA (T1, T2). Parental and child body weight and height were measured objectively (T1, T2).

Results

Path analyses indicated indirect effects of parental perceptions of school/community-based PA policies (T1) and parental perceptions of transportation provision (T1) on child body weight (T2), with child MVPA (T2) operating as the mediator. There were no direct or indirect effects of child perceptions of parental transportation provision (T1) on child MVPA or body weight (T2). Similar patterns of associations were found for the total sample and the subsample of children with overweight/obesity.

Conclusion

Parental perceptions of school/community-based PA policies and transportation provision may explain changes in child MVPA and body weight. Interventions aimed at prevention of child overweight/obesity may benefit from a focus on parental transportation provision to PA facilities and parental awareness of PA promotion at local environment.

Psychosocial Syndemics and Sexual Risk Practices Among U.S. Adolescents: Findings from the 2017 U.S. Youth Behavioral Survey

Abstract

Background

The present study aims to (1) identify classes of psychosocial syndemics among adolescents in the U.S. based on psychological factors, such as depression and suicidal ideation, and social factors, such as binge drinking, alcohol use, and drug use; (2) identify correlates of psychosocial syndemics; and (3) examine the independent associations between psychosocial syndemic factors and sexual risk practices.

Method

We used latent class analysis and a sample of 14,762 U.S. high school students who participated in the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to examine youth population profiles based on shared characteristics of syndemics. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, we conducted logistic regression to explore the connections between psychosocial syndemic factors and three sexual risk practices, namely, early initiation of sexual intercourse, condom use, and sex with multiple partners.

Results

The study results indicate that three classes of risk exist among the sample: substance misuse (class 1, n = 3872, 26.2%), normative (class 2, n = 8791, 59.6%), and mental health problems (class 3, n = 2099, 14.2%). Class membership of psychosocial syndemics was significantly different by gender, age group, and race. The odds of initiating sexual intercourse before age 13 were positively associated with participants belonging in the substance misuse class and the mental health problem class. The odds of using condoms during the last sexual intercourse for currently sexually active adolescents were lower for participants classified in the substance misuse class. The likelihood of reporting having sex with four or more partners in a lifetime was higher among participants belonging to the substance misuse class.

Conclusion

The study advances our understanding of the heterogeneity of class membership associated with psychosocial syndemic risk factors among adolescents and extends our understanding of syndemics in the area of adolescent health. Thus, practitioners and policymakers can design multicomponent and multilevel school-based HIV/STI prevention programs that meet the needs of adolescents.

Pathways to Health: an Examination of HIV-Related Stigma, Life Stressors, Depression, and Substance Use

Abstract

Background

Despite antiretroviral treatment (ART) being an efficacious treatment for HIV, essentially making it a chronic non-terminal illness, two related and frequent concerns for many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) continue to be HIV-related stigma and life stress. These two variables are frequently associated with depression, substance use, and poorer functional health. Studies to date have not fully examined the degree to which these constructs may be associated within one model, which could reveal a more nuanced understanding of how HIV-related stigma and life stress affect functional health in PLWHA.

Methods

The current study employed hybrid structural equation modeling to examine the interconnectedness and potential indirect relationships of HIV-related stigma and life stress to worse health through substance use and depression, controlling for ART adherence and age. Participants were 240 HIV-infected individuals who completed a biopsychosocial assessment battery upon screening for an RCT on treating depression in those infected with HIV.

Results

Both HIV-related stigma and stressful life events were directly related to depression, and depression was directly related to health. There were significant indirect effects from stigma and stress to health via depression. There were no significant effects involving substance use.

Conclusion

It is important to continue to develop ways to address stigma, stressful life events, and their effects on distress in those living with HIV. Expanding our knowledge of disease progression risk factors beyond ART adherence is important to be able to design adjuvant interventions, particularly because treatment means that people living with HIV have markedly improved life expectancy and that successful treatment means that HIV is not transmittable to others.

Association Between Deviation of Fairness Perceptions from Group Average and Serious Psychological Distress in Japanese Worksites: a Cross-Sectional Study

Abstract

Background

Workers with deviating fairness perceptions are likely to be excluded and become isolated at worksites, leading to psychological distress. The study aimed to examine the cross-sectional association between deviation of fairness perception from the group average and serious psychological distress in Japanese worksites.

Methods

Secondary data analysis of an existing Japanese occupational cohort data using a multilevel logistic regression model was conducted for 8701 workers from 12 companies in Japan who participated in the baseline survey (from April 2010 to March 2012). Individual perception of interactional and procedural fairness was measured with the Japanese version of the Organizational Justice Scale. Group averages were calculated within workers’ reference groups, categorized by company affiliation, age group, gender, and occupational class. Psychological distress was measured using the K6 scale, and serious psychological distress was defined as a total K6 score of 13 or more.

Results

Both low deviation and high deviation of interactional fairness perception were significantly and positively associated with serious psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence intervals (CI); 1.03–1.49 and OR = 1.57, 95% CI; 1.12–2.19), independently of individual-level fairness perception, group-level mean fairness perception, demographic characteristics, and health-related behaviors. Only high deviation of procedural fairness perception was significantly and positively related to serious psychological distress (OR = 1.51, 95% CI; 1.11–2.06).

Conclusions

The results indicated that divergent perceptions of fairness at worksites may deserve further exploration for equal achievement of workers’ psychological well-being.

Relations of Subjective Social Status and Brooding with Blood Pressure

Abstract

Background

Brooding, a type of rumination, and subjective social status (SSS) may be two interacting factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our goal was to examine the relations of brooding and SSS with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), two measures of CVD. We predicted that [1] brooding and SSS are each related to SBP and DBP and [2] the interaction of brooding and SSS is linked to SBP and DBP.

Method

In this cross-sectional study, college student participants (n = 240; 58.6% female, age: M = 23.95 years, SD = 8.62) completed demographics questionnaires, the Ruminative Response Scale, and MacArthur Subjective Social Status scale, and gave blood pressure samples.

Results

Linear models suggested that, for participants low in SSS, high brooding and DBP were positively related. For participants high in SSS, high brooding and low DBP were negatively related. There were no relations between SSS, brooding, and SBP.

Conclusions

As predicted, for individuals with low SSS, more brooding was associated with higher DBP. Yet, in individuals with high SSS, more brooding was associated with lower DBP. There was no relation between SSS, brooding, and SBP. Our results suggest that brooding may serve as diathesis for some symptoms of CVD (i.e., high DBP but not high SBP) in individuals with low SSS. We discuss how other factors, like burnout or defensive pessimism, may contribute to the relation between high SSS, high brooding, and low DBP.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182

6948891480
alsfakia

Behavioral Medicine

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com,


Swallowing Skills and Aspiration Risk Following Treatment of Head and Neck Cancers Authors Authors and…

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Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

4m

Malignant Melanoma: Autoimmunity and Supracellular Messaging as New Therapeutic Approaches Opinion…
Malignant Melanoma: Autoimmunity and Supracellular Messaging as New Therapeutic ApproachesOpinion statementMelanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, with a high mortality rate in the absence of a safe and curable therapy. As a consequence, several procedures have been tested over time, with the most recent (immunological and targeted) therapies proving to be effective in some patients. Unfortunately, these new treatment options continue to generate debate related to the therapeutic…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

4m

Pain in Cancer Survivors: How to Manage Opinion statement Managing pain in cancer survivors requires…
Pain in Cancer Survivors: How to ManageOpinion statementManaging pain in cancer survivors requires that oncologists understand the common painful syndromes that can occur from treatment or disease. Assessment no longer singularly focuses on pain characteristics (e.g., intensity, quality, location), now incorporating a strong focus on functional impairment and potential improvement that might occur with adequate treatment. Improvement in function is now the goal used to measure success. In addition,…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

5m

Cancer and Coronary Artery Disease: Common Associations, Diagnosis and Management Challenges Opinion…
Cancer and Coronary Artery Disease: Common Associations, Diagnosis and Management ChallengesOpinion statementCoronary artery disease (CAD) and cancer often occur in the same patients via common biological pathways and shared risk factors. A variety of chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy can influence the development and progression of CAD. The diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease may be challenging in certain cases such as premature CAD secondary to radiotherapy. The management of CAD in cancer…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

5m

Cardiotoxicity of Contemporary Breast Cancer Treatments Opinion statement Treatment-related cardiotoxicity…
Cardiotoxicity of Contemporary Breast Cancer TreatmentsOpinion statementTreatment-related cardiotoxicity remains a significant concern for breast cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment and extends into the survivorship period, with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes further compounded by the presence of pre-existing CV disease or traditional CV risk factors. Awareness of the cardiotoxicity profiles of contemporary breast cancer treatments and optimization of CV risk factors are crucial in…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

5m

Multimodality Therapy of Patients with Refractory Meningiomas Opinion statement Recurrent and refractory…
Multimodality Therapy of Patients with Refractory MeningiomasOpinion statementRecurrent and refractory meningiomas are a clinical challenge and treatment at the time of recurrence is not well delineated. Treatment with surgery and/or radiation remain the mainstay, but each has their limitations and risks. The search for an adjuvant systemic therapy continues and as many of the initially promising approaches have not had reproducible responses. Bevacizumab has shown some efficacy in controlling recurrent…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

5m

The Role of CDK4/6 Inhibitors in Breast Cancer Opinion statement Oral inhibitors of CDK4/6 have been…
The Role of CDK4/6 Inhibitors in Breast CancerOpinion statementOral inhibitors of CDK4/6 have been shown to increase response rates and prolong disease control when combined with endocrine therapy in hormone-responsive (HR+) HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. Palbociclib, ribociclib and abemaciclib are all approved in combination with non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors in first-line therapy for post-menopausal women, with a 40–45% improvement in progression-free survival seen with the addition…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

6m

Diagnosis and Management of Subcutaneous Soft Tissue Sarcoma Opinion statement The proper diagnosis…
Diagnosis and Management of Subcutaneous Soft Tissue SarcomaOpinion statementThe proper diagnosis and treatment planning for subcutaneous soft tissue sarcoma is very important. Soft tissue tumors can occur anywhere in the body, but if they occur subcutaneously, patients can easily notice a subcutaneous soft tissue mass. Therefore, it is possible to determine through recording, the growth speed of the mass, which is often difficult to obtain with deep-situated soft tissue masses. Palpation can also…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

6m

Pediatric Cardio-Oncology: Development of Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity and the Therapeutic…
Pediatric Cardio-Oncology: Development of Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity and the Therapeutic Approach to Affected PatientsOpinion statementThe past 5 decades have seen significant improvements in outcomes for pediatric patients with cancer. Unfortunately, children and adolescents who have been treated for cancer are five to six times more likely to develop cardiovascular disease as a result of their therapies. Cardiovascular disease may manifest in a plethora of ways, from asymptomatic ventricular…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

6m

QT Interval Prolongation Associated With Cytotoxic and Targeted Cancer Therapeutics Opinion statement…
QT Interval Prolongation Associated With Cytotoxic and Targeted Cancer TherapeuticsOpinion statementCardiovascular toxicities are potentially serious treatment limiting complications of many different cancer therapeutics including traditional cytotoxic chemotherapies as well as targeted- and immunotherapies. As a result, there is increased monitoring for cancer treatment-related cardiotoxicities, ranging from heart failure to arrhythmias. Many anticancer treatments are known to prolong the QT interval…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

6m

Surgical Oncology
Correction to: Desk of the Editor Vol. 9 Issue 4Due to an unfortunate error in the email address of the corresponding author, this correction paper is being published.Donut Mastopexy LumpectomyAbstractAdvancements in oncoplastic techniques have enhanced commitment to restore shape and, hence, has improved cosmetic outcomes. Donut mastopexy lumpectomy is one such technique and is best utilized in a setting of a malignancy not extending to the skin or the nipple-areolar complex. As a potential alternative…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

7m

Current Treatment Options in Oncology
QT Interval Prolongation Associated With Cytotoxic and Targeted Cancer TherapeuticsOpinion statementCardiovascular toxicities are potentially serious treatment limiting complications of many different cancer therapeutics including traditional cytotoxic chemotherapies as well as targeted- and immunotherapies. As a result, there is increased monitoring for cancer treatment-related cardiotoxicities, ranging from heart failure to arrhythmias. Many anticancer treatments are known to prolong the QT interval…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

7m


Environmental Sciences
Effect of amendments on the leaching behavior of alkaline anions and metal ions in bauxite residuePublication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 85Author(s): Tao Tian, Jingju Zhou, Feng Zhu, Yuzhen Ye, Ying Guo, William Hartley, Shengguo XueAbstractA column leaching experiment was used to investigate the efficacy of amendments on their ability to remove alkaline anions and metal ions from bauxite residue leachates. Treatments included, simulated acid rain (AR), phosphogypsum + vermicompost…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

13m

Long‐term evolving profile of childhood autoimmune blistering diseases: Retrospective study on 38 children…
Long‐term evolving profile of childhood autoimmune blistering diseases: Retrospective study on 38 childrenA. Welfringer‐Morin L. Bekel N. Bellon A. Gantzer O. Boccara S. Hadj‐Rabia S. Leclerc‐Mercier A Frassati‐Biaggi S. Fraitag C. BodemerFirst published: 31 January 2019 https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.15456Funding sources There was no funding source supporting this work.Conflicts of interest The authors report no conflict of interest.Read the full textePDFPDFTOOLS SHAREAbstractBackgroundAutoimmune…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

18m

Demographics, healthcare utilization and drug use in children and adults with atopic dermatitis in Denmark:…
Demographics, healthcare utilization and drug use in children and adults with atopic dermatitis in Denmark: a population‐based cross‐sectional studyY.M.F. Andersen A. Egeberg L. Skov J.P. ThyssenFirst published: 11 January 2019 https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.15424Conflicts of interest Dr. Andersen has received research funding from the Lundbeck Foundation, Aage Bang Foundation and A.P. Møller Foundation. Dr. Thyssen has received research a grant from the Lundbeck Foundation attended advisory boards…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

19m

DNA copy number imbalances in primary cutaneous lymphomas G. Gug Q. Huang E. Chiticariu C. Solovan …
DNA copy number imbalances in primary cutaneous lymphomasG. Gug Q. Huang E. Chiticariu C. Solovan M. BaudisFirst published: 19 January 2019 https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.15442Conflicts of interest We have no conflict of interest to declare.Funding sources Swiss National Science Foundation (IZERZ0_142305); UEFISCDI România.Read the full textePDFPDFTOOLS SHAREAbstractBackgroundCutaneous lymphomas (CL) represent a clinically defined group of extranodal non‐Hodgkin lymphomas harbouring heterogeneous…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

20m

Rapid onset of action of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate cutaneous foam in psoriasis, even in…
Rapid onset of action of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate cutaneous foam in psoriasis, even in patients with more severe diseaseA.E. Pink A. Jalili P. Berg P.G. Calzavara‐Pinton P. de la Cueva Dobao D. Thaçi M. Torpet K.L. Jensen S. SegaertFirst published: 27 March 2019 https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.15398Conflicts of interest Andrew Pink has served as an advisor, steering group member or lectured for Almirall, LEO Pharma, Lilly, Sanofi, Novartis and La Roche‐Posay. Ahmad Jalili has been…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

21m


Position statement for the diagnosis and management of anogenital warts
C. O’Mahony M. Gomberg M. Skerlev A. Alraddadi M.E. de las Heras‐Alonso S. Majewski E. Nicolaidou S. Serdaroğlu Z. Kutlubay M. Tawara A. Stary A. Al Hammadi M. CusiniFirst published: 10 April 2019 https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.15570Conflict of interest Authors are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships between themselves and others that might be perceived by others as biasing their work. To prevent ambiguity, authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

23m

Immunohistochemical analysis of class‐switched subtype of primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma in…
Immunohistochemical analysis of class‐switched subtype of primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma in terms of inducible skin‐associated lymphoid tissue (iSALT)Toshiaki Kogame Tomoya Takegami Tatsuhiro Sakai Tatsuki Kataoka Masahiro Hirata Fatimah Mohammad Budair Chiyuki Ueshima Miho Matsui Takashi Nomura Kenji KabashimaFirst published: 24 May 2019 https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.15703This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting,…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

26m

Ultrasound as a Diagnostic and Management Tool in Hidradenitis Suppurativa Patients: A Multicenter Study…
Ultrasound as a Diagnostic and Management Tool in Hidradenitis Suppurativa Patients: A Multicenter StudyA Martorell F Alfageme Roldán E Vilarrasa Rull R Ruiz‐Villaverde J Romaní De Gabriel F García Martínez D Vidal Sarro M Velasco Pastor C Ciudad Blanco J M Segura Palacios … See all authorsFirst published: 24 May 2019 https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.15710This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

29m

Benign and suspicious pink tumors : According to the high sensitivity model of the Menzies score, 129 (12.9%) lesions were considered as non‐suspicious (of which 16 were false negative) and 871 (87.1%) as suspicious (of which 212 were false positive), with 97.6% sensitivity, 34.8% specificity. According to the high specificity model, 370 (37%) lesions were evaluated as non‐suspicious (of which 105 were false negative) and 630 (63%) as suspicious (of which 60 were false positive), with 84.4% sensitivity, 81.5% specificity. Concerning the prevalent criterion method, 316 (31.6%) lesions were evaluated as non‐suspicious (of which 46 were false negative) and 684 (68.4) as suspicious (of which 55 were false positive), with 93.2% sensitivity and 83.1% specificity.
The prevalent dermoscopic criterion to distinguish between benign and suspicious pink tumorsTeresa Russo Riccardo Pampena Vincenzo Piccolo Roberto Alfano Chryssoula Papageorgiou Zoe Apalla Caterina Longo Aimilios Lallas Giuseppe ArgenzianoFirst published: 24 May 2019 https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.15707This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

30m

Evaluation of medical and surgical treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa using real‐life data from…
Evaluation of medical and surgical treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa using real‐life data from the Scandinavian registry (HISREG)Ø. Grimstad T. Tzellos D.N. Dufour Ø. Bremnes I.M. Skoie I. Snekvik E. Jarnæss A. Kyrgidis G. IngvarssonFirst published: 19 November 2018 https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.15353 Cited by: 1Conflict of Interest The other authors state no conflict of interest.Funding source AbbVie paid for the extraction of data from the HISREG database and for the statistical analyses…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

32m

Resveratrol and siRNA in combination reduces Hsp27 expression and induces caspase-3 activity in human…
Resveratrol and siRNA in combination reduces Hsp27 expression and induces caspase-3 activity in human glioblastoma cellsAbstractGBM cells can easily gain resistance to conventional therapy, and therefore treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is difficult. One of the hallmark proteins known to be responsible for this resistance is heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) which has a key role in the cell survival. Resveratrol, a natural compound, exhibits antitumor effects against GBM, but there are no reports…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

34m

HSP72 expression is specific to skeletal muscle contraction type Abstract Exercise is capable of inducing…
HSP72 expression is specific to skeletal muscle contraction typeAbstractExercise is capable of inducing the cellular stress response and increasing skeletal muscle heat shock protein (HSP) content. HSPs function as molecular chaperones and play roles in facilitating protein folding thereby contributing to muscle proteostasis. To determine the relationship between muscle contraction types, muscle damage, and HSP content, one tibialis anterior (TA) muscle from male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5/group)…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

34m


Η αιτία των εκλογών είναι βαθύτερη : Γιατί θα ψηφίσω Μητσοτάκη/ΝΔ
Του Μανούσου Μαραγκουδάκη*https://www.liberal.gr/apopsi/giati-tha-psifiso-kuriako/253111Δεν είχα ψηφίσει ποτέ ΝΔ μέχρι την μεγάλη κρίση. Όταν την ψήφισα, κατά την ιλιγγιώδη άνοδο του ΣΥΡΙΖΑ, ο λόγος ήταν να αποτρέψω με την ψήφο μου την μεγάλη καταστροφή. Ήταν το καλύτερο που θα μπορούσαμε να περιμένουμε αν λάβουμε υπόψη την κατάσταση που ήταν τότε η χώρα. Τώρα όμως, πάνω στα αποκαΐδια της διακυβέρνησης ΣΥΡΙΖΑ, μεγάλες μεταρρυθμίσεις είναι πράγματι δυνατές. Και πιστεύω ότι ο Κυριάκος είναι ο κατάλληλος…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

35m

Expression and localization of heat-shock proteins during skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation…
Expression and localization of heat-shock proteins during skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation and the impact of heat stressAbstractSkeletal myogenesis is a coordinated sequence of events associated with dramatic changes in cell morphology, motility, and metabolism, which causes cellular stress and alters proteostasis. Chaperones, such as heat-shock proteins (HSPs), play important roles in limiting cellular stresses and maintaining proteostasis, but whether HSPs are specifically…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

42m

Hippo/Mst1 overexpression induces mitochondrial death in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma via activating…
Hippo/Mst1 overexpression induces mitochondrial death in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma via activating β-catenin/Drp1 pathwayAbstractMammalian Ste20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) is associated with cell apoptosis. In the current study, we explored the regulatory effects of Mst1 on squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) in vitro. SCCHN Cal27 cells and Tu686 cells were transfected with adenovirus-loaded Mst1 to detect the role of Mst1 in cell viability. Then, siRNA against Drp1 was transfected…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

43m

Cell Stress and Chaperones
Hippo/Mst1 overexpression induces mitochondrial death in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma via activating β-catenin/Drp1 pathwayAbstractMammalian Ste20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) is associated with cell apoptosis. In the current study, we explored the regulatory effects of Mst1 on squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) in vitro. SCCHN Cal27 cells and Tu686 cells were transfected with adenovirus-loaded Mst1 to detect the role of Mst1 in cell viability. Then, siRNA against Drp1 was transfected…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

43m

Neurological Sciences
Correction to: A review of electrophysiological studies of lower motor neuron involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosisThe published version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The sequence of authorship and the corresponding author is incorrect. The correct sequence and corresponding author is presented here.A case of foreign accent syndrome in a patient affected by a complex functional movement disorderAccuracy of MDS-UPDRS section IV for detecting motor fluctuations in Parkinson’s…

Αλέξανδρος Γ. Σφακιανάκης

45m

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182

6948891480
alsfakia

Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com,

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology

Astronomical constraints on deposition of the Middle Triassic Chang 7 lacustrine shales in the Ordos Basin, Central China
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Source: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 528

Author(s): Rui Zhang, Zhijun Jin, Quanyou Liu, Peng Li, Zhenkai Huang, Juye Shi, Yunjin Ge, Kefeng Du

Abstract

The Middle Triassic was a key period that witnessed the evolution of Earth system processes and the commencement of a terrestrial lake in the Ordos Basin, Central China. A high-precision stratigraphic framework is the key to understanding the nature and pattern of critical geological events. Detailed time series analyses of magnetic susceptibility (MS) data were performed on the deep lacustrine shale-dominated Chang 7 Member of the Yanchang Formation from the Y1011 well core. The results reveal well documented cyclic variations with wavelengths of 5.37 m, 1.39–1.78 m, 0.48 m, and 0.24–0.30 m, which are driven by long-eccentricity, short-eccentricity, obliquity, and precession in the Middle Triassic. The stable 405-kyr tuned floating astrochronological time scale (FATS) reveals that the depositional duration of the Chang 7 Member is approximately 5 Myr, and the sedimentation rates range from 0.90 cm/kyr to 1.69 cm/kyr. In particular, the lower part of the Chang 7 Member is characterized by an organic-rich, black shale, called “Zhangjiatan Shale”, whose depositional duration can be estimated at about 1.7 Myr. Along with the published biostratigraphic divisions and UsbndPb age constraints, our FATS further confirms that the Chang 7 Member mainly developed in the Ladinian Stage, and that the upper part of the Chang 7 spanned the Middle/Late Triassic boundary. The duration of the Chang 7 deposition suggests a temporal and genetic linkage between the responses of the Chang 7 shales in the Ordos Basin and the Indosinian Orogeny in the Qinling orogenic belt. The Ladinian Stage of the Middle Triassic probably witnessed a dramatic shift in the evolution of the regional geodynamic system.

Are light-dark coupled laminae in lacustrine shale seasonally controlled? A case study using astronomical tuning from 42.2 to 45.4 Ma in the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Source: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 528

Author(s): Ke Zhao, Xuebin Du, Yongchao Lu, Shipeng Xiong, Yong Wang

Abstract

As a typical sedimentary structure in fine-grained rocks, laminae are widely distributed in shales and mudstones in sedimentary basins. The Shahejie Formation (42.2–45.4 Ma) formed during the Eocene of the Paleogene in the Dongying Depression of China is recognized as a typical area to study lacustrine shale. According to the composition of different lamina, four types of couplets are identified, including carbonate-clay couplets, carbonate-organic couplets, clay-organic couplets and carbonate-clay-organic triplets. All couplets are composed of light and dark layers. A combination of core images, microscopic observations, mineral compositions, geochemical data, carbon and oxygen isotopes, and strontium isotopes verifies that the laminae are primarily developed in a saline and anoxic, or even euxinic environment, with a high organic matter (OM) flux. Through astronomical cycle analysis of the natural gamma ray (GR) curve from sample site well NY1, the data suggest that the lacustrine shale laminae are formed annually with an average duration of 1.34 yr. The formation of laminae is affected by the season, which is closely related to the seasonal growth and death of algae. During the period of algae growth, a large number of light-colored carbonate laminae are deposited, whereas when the algae dies, organic matter accumulates at the bottom of lakes and forms dark organic-rich laminae. The interbedded and lenticular laminae, which are subdivided by layering characteristics, are primarily affected by diagenesis in postdepositional processes. Study of the laminae is helpful in understanding the formation process of lacustrine shale, and it provides invaluable sources of information for paleoclimate reconstruction.

δ13C stratigraphy of a Turinian-Chatfieldian (Upper Ordovician) foreland succession, Ottawa Embayment (central Canada): resolving local and inter-regional isotope excursions in a tectonically active basin
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Source: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 528

Author(s): Nkechi E. Oruche, George R. Dix, Sean Gazdewich

Abstract

Positive δ13Ccarb excursions are correlated through an upper Turinian to lower Chatfieldian carbonate-platform succession along the axis of the Ottawa Embayment and into outliers of the northern Ottawa-Bonnechere graben in central Canada. Successive Turinian excursions (E1 and E2) are lithostratigraphically constrained by erosional surfaces and hosted within the Watertown and overlying L’Orignal formations, respectively, the latter coeval with the Selby Formation in the adjacent northern Appalachian Basin. The excursions coincide with periods of regional transgression, but geographic patterns of 13C depletion versus enrichment coincide with structurally defined areas of stratigraphically condensed and preferentially thickened formation successions, respectively. Differential subsidence is interpreted to have created bathymetric variation resulting in intrabasinal restriction of seawater exchange between these areas, with preferential Corg recycling with stratigraphic condensation. By early Chatfieldian time, segmentation of the once regional carbonate platform (L’Orignal Formation) produced a regional mosaic of low-energy muddy carbonate banks (Rockland Formation) and a deeper water platform (lower Hull Formation) settings subject to fluctuating high to low energy current flow. Excursion E3 occurs in both successions, but 13C enrichment is associated only with the bank-top muddy facies. This may identify preferential photosynthetic drawdown of 12C across the bank tops due to limited seawater exchange across the bank-deeper platform boundaries. Excursions E1 to E3, and a younger excursion (E4) in the Hull Formation, are correlated with varying confidence with excursions across southern Laurentia, excursion E3 being the local expression of the Guttenberg δ13C excursion. Our study supports local modulation of regional, if not global, δ13C excursions arising from structurally controlled changes in oceanography and productivity.

Addressing the effects of sampling on ecometric-based paleoenvironmental reconstructions
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Source: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 528

Author(s): J. Tyler Faith, Andrew Du, John Rowan

Abstract

Ecometric analysis involves the examination of quantifiable functional traits across the taxa in a biotic community. Well-documented relationships between certain functional traits and environmental gradients in the present provide the empirical framework for a large body of research that uses ecometrics to reconstruct environments in the fossil record. In current applications of the technique, the taxa present in a fossil assemblage are summarized using the mean value of an environmentally informative trait. This study explores some of the quantitative pitfalls inherent to this approach. Through analysis of dental crown height—a trait that is widely used to infer paleo-precipitation—of Late Pleistocene ungulate assemblages from the Lake Victoria Basin in western Kenya, we illustrate how ecometric means vary as a function of sample size. Sampling artifacts have the potential to bias ecometric means, and the environmental inferences derived from them, whenever there is a non-random distribution of traits across the species abundance distribution (e.g., if abundant taxa have different traits than rare taxa). This sampling issue also means that the degree of analytical precision implied by quantitative paleoenvironmental reconstructions (e.g., annual precipitation at time X was 500 mm/yr) derived from ecometrics may be unwarranted. We recommend that analytical approaches be modified to circumvent these problems and explore three potential solutions: (1) specimen-based rarefaction, (2) coverage-based rarefaction, and (3) weighting ecometric means by taxonomic abundances. Of these, only the latter is robust to variation in sampling effort. Because abundance data are not always available and are potentially unreliable, we outline alternative approaches that could be implemented to contend with sample bias.

Evidence of SPICE-related anoxia on the Laurentian passive margin: Paired δ13C and trace element chemostratigraphy of the upper Conasauga Group, Central Appalachian Basin
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Source: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 528

Author(s): Justin E. Mackey, Brian W. Stewart

Abstract

This study reports data from the Upper Cambrian Conasauga Group and overlying Copper Ridge Formation of the Central Appalachian region, eastern U.S.A. Geochemical, isotopic and petrographic analysis of core material was carried out to constrain the extent of marine anoxia and to characterize sediment fluxes on the carbonate platform and continental shelf of Laurentia contemporaneous with the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE), a Late Cambrian global marine anoxic event. Carbonate rocks (primarily dolostone) record a positive δ13Ccarb excursion starting in the middle Nolichucky Formation, reaching its peak (+4.3‰) at the boundary between the Maynardville and Copper Ridge formations. Strontium isotope ratios in the dolostone units are only slightly offset from the expected Cambrian seawater values, suggesting minimal post-diagenetic disturbance of isotopic and trace element systematics. Selective leaching of carbonate units reveal upward decreasing trends in dissolved redox-sensitive trace metals (e.g., U, Ni, V) indicative of drawdown from regional and global marine anoxia during the peak of the Late Cambrian SPICE event.

Palaeoecological implications of an Upper Cretaceous tetrapod burrow (Bauru Basin; Peirópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil)
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Source: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 528

Author(s): Agustín G. Martinelli, Giorgio Basilici, Lucas E. Fiorelli, Carolina Klock, Joachim Karfunkel, Ariela Costa Diniz, Marcus V.T. Soares, André Marconato, João Ismael da Silva, Luiz Carlos B. Ribeiro, Thiago S. Marinho

Abstract

We describe a globally rare example of a tetrapod burrow from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group (Bauru Basin) from Peirópolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sedimentary succession containing the burrow includes a rich vertebrate assemblage comprising fish, podocnemid turtles, mesoeucrocodylians, saurischian dinosaurs, among others. The burrow is composed of an oblique tunnel (~30°), oval in cross-section, with a horizontal and sub-oval terminal chamber; it is 1.3 m long from the midpoint of its inferred entrance to the midpoint of the bottom of the chamber. It occurs in the upper portion of a sandstone succession, interpreted as a braided channel deposit, and the burrow-fill comprises medium-grained sandstone with mudstone intraclasts derived from fluvial floodplain facies. it is overlain by other fluvial channel deposits. Analyses suggest that the burrow was dug after the filling of the braided channel and during the pedogenesis of its exposed upper surface. Based on burrow morphology and size, the most plausible producer of this burrow is a notosuchian mesoeucrocodylian, such as small to mid-sized notosuchians (e.g., sphagesaurids). The Bauru Group has an extensive fossil record of notosuchians with disparate morphologies, and it is noteworthy that the small-sized notosuchian Labidiosuchus amicum comes from the same unit as the burrow. Moreover, arid to semi-arid conditions have been inferred for fossil-bearing rocks of this unit, and as such the data here presented add to our palaeoecological knowledge of Cretaceous mesoeucrocodylians in Gondwana. Moreover, it constitutes a new Cretaceous record of a tetrapod burrow during a period when such ichnofossils are globally rare.

Dental histology of late Miocene hipparionins compared with extant Equus, and its implications for Equidae life history
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Source: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 528

Author(s): Guillem Orlandi-Oliveras, Carmen Nacarino-Meneses, Meike Köhler

Abstract

Hipparionins were a dominant element of the late Miocene faunas of Europe; however, their biology and ecology remain incompletely understood. In this paper, we explore the pace of life history of different-sized hipparionin horses, using dental histology, and compare it with extant equids. In doing so we consider (i) the size diversity of hipparionins, (ii) their generally smaller size compared to extant equids, and (iii) the allometric coupling between size and life history. In particular, we reconstruct the dental growth in lower first/second molars and in later-formed lower third molars for three hipparionin taxa: two dwarf species (Hipparion periafricanumand H. gromovae), and a larger species (H. concudense). We also analyze dental growth in an extant zebra (Equus quagga) for comparative purposes. Our results reveal that, within each species, there are differences in enamel growth parameters between the first/second molars and third molars. These results illustrate the differences in the developmental timing of these teeth and the existence of a relationship between dental growth parameters with somatic growth. We also find that hipparionin teeth grow at slower rates and tend to erupt later in time than in extant Equus. Dwarf hipparionins, moreover, exhibit lower enamel extension rates than the larger species, but similar formation and eruption times. Considering the link between dental development and life history, these results suggest a slower pace of growth of selected hipparionins compared to extant equids, and a further slower life history than expected for their size in the two dwarf forms.

Cyclonic activity over northeastern Africa at 8.5–6.7 cal kyr B.P., based on lacustrine records in the Faiyum Oasis, Egypt
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Source: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 528

Author(s): Leszek Marks, Fabian Welc, Krystyna Milecka, Abdelfattah Zalat, Zhongyuan Chen, Aleksandra Majecka, Jerzy Nitychoruk, Alaa Salem, Qianli Sun, Marcin Szymanek, Izabela Gałecka, Anna Tołoczko-Pasek

Abstract

During African Humid Period in the Holocene when the summer Intertropical Convergence Zone migrated to its northernmost position, the Qarun Lake in the Faiyum Oasis in Egypt was fed with regular inflows from the Nile River and rainfall brought by the Mediterranean winter circulation. Finely-laminated lake sediments, dated at 8.5–6.7 cal kyr B.P., were examined in terms of lithology, geochemistry, microfossils (diatom, pollen) and magnetic susceptibility. Based on the inferred geographical derivation of pollen, the environmental affiliation of diatom taxa and geochemistry of lake sediments, wind trajectories were distinguished, related to two main atmospheric circulation phases. During the earlier phase (8.50–7.83 cal kyr B.P.) there were northwestern wind trajectories followed by southern ones and during the later phase (7.83–6.70 cal kyr B.P.), the northern winds were followed by northwestern and southern ones. Northwestern and northern winds brought winter rainfall and caused water turbulence in the lake, and the southern winds were associated with regional aridification. This scenario of atmospheric circulation in northeastern Africa extends significantly our understanding of key modes of climatic variability and wind trajectories in the Early to Middle Holocene (Greenlandian to Northgrippian) transition.

How quick was marine recovery after the end-Triassic mass extinction and what role did anoxia play?
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Source: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 528

Author(s): J.W. Atkinson, P.B. Wignall

Abstract

Oxygen restricted conditions were widespread in European shelf seas after the end-Triassic mass extinction event and they are reported to have hindered the recovery of marine benthos. Here we reconstruct the redox history of the Early Jurassic Blue Lias Formation of southwest Britain using pyrite framboid size analysis and compare this with the recovery of bivalves based on field and museum collections. Results suggest widespread dysoxia punctuated by periods of anoxia in the region, with the latter developing frequently in deeper water settings. Despite these harsh conditions, initial benthic recovery occurred rapidly in the British Jurassic, especially in shallowest settings, and shows no relationship with the intensity of dysoxia. A stable diversity was reached by the first recognised ammonite zone after the end-Triassic mass extinction. This contrasts with the deeper-water, more oxygen-poor sections where the diversity increase was still continuing in the earliest Sinemurian Stage, considerably longer than previously reported. Similar recovery rates are seen amongst other groups (brachiopods and ammonites). Oxygen-poor conditions have been suggested to delay recovery after the Permo-Triassic mass extinction, but this is not the case after the end-Triassic crisis. We suggest that this was because the European dysoxia was only a regional phenomenon and there were plenty of well-ventilated regions available to allow an untrammelled bounce back.

Ecophenotypic shape variability within Astarte (Class: Bivalvia) from the Pliocene of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, U.S.A.: A study using geometric morphometrics
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Source: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 528

Author(s): R. Philip Roberson, Michelle M. Casey

Abstract

The Atlantic Coastal Plain has long been recognized as a natural laboratory useful for testing hypotheses surrounding the environmental and ecological effects on marine fauna. To conduct these studies in a rigorous manner, a reliable taxonomy must be established for the organisms within this physiographic province. In this study, we focus on the bivalve genus Astarte, which is commonly found in this region, and has many formally recognized species. We test between two competing hypotheses for the unusually high species richness of this genus: 1) taxonomy – the presence of discrete morphotypes represent valid species within this genus; and, 2) ecology – the many recognized ‘species’ in this genus in fact represent ecophenotypic variants of a smaller number of species, and thus richness is inflated. We test between these two hypotheses using a geometric morphometric analysis of landmarks placed on 646 shells, representing six different taxa from the Pliocene of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. We performed Procrustes transformation and Principle Components Analysis (PCA) on landmark data, allometric residuals, and outline harmonics to fully understand the variability of morphologies present. All PCA results show large amounts of overlap between all species. It is likely some of these species are valid taxonomic groups within the genus but should be classified as sub-species instead of separate species. These results provide strong support for our ‘ecology’ hypothesis, and suggests the genus Astarte needs revision. Future studies incorporating detailed sedimentological characteristics or ecological information (e.g., drilling frequency) will further elucidate palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental drivers of ecophenotypic variation present in this genus. Further, the accurate identification of fossil species has important implications for our ability to reconstruct biodiversity trends in relation to the emergence of the Central American Isthmus and subsequent changes in ocean circulation.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182

6948891480
alsfakia

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology