|Retrieval of a Esophageal pH Monitoring Probe Dislodged Into the Laryngopharynx: A Case Report
Esophageal pH monitoring via wireless probes is used to evaluate chest pain and atypical symptoms and diagnose gastroesophageal reflux. These probes are commonly placed during esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed by gastroenterologists in an ambulatory anesthesia setting. Dislodgment and aspiration of these probes can cause morbidity, require surgical removal, and involve the anesthesia provider in prolonged emergency care. We present a case of a probe dislodgment where aspiration was avoided and describe how retrieval of this device is different from typical hypopharyngeal foreign body removal.
|Urgent Complex Intraoperative Reintubation in a Known Difficult Airway After Endotracheal Tube Damage: A Case Report
Treacher Collins syndrome is an inherited disorder resulting in maldevelopment of the first and second branchial arches. Patients have complex orofacial anatomy often requiring airway interventions from birth. A 17-year-old boy with Treacher Collins syndrome and history of difficult ventilation and intubation presented for elective maxillofacial reconstruction. After uneventful awake nasal fiberoptic intubation, the nasotracheal tube was damaged intraoperatively. Due to the patient’s unique anatomy, a fiberoptic bronchoscope and ventilating exchange catheter were utilized together to facilitate a nasotracheal tube exchange. This case demonstrates the utilization of a combination of advanced airway techniques in an urgent perioperative setting.
|Supraglottic Airway Rescue After Failed Fiberoptic Intubation in a Patient With Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report
We describe the management of a pregnant patient with osteogenesis imperfecta with a history of numerous fractures, severe scoliosis, and anticipated difficult airway. Her pregnancy was complicated by progressive shortness of breath and a fetal diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta. Spine anatomy precluded neuraxial anesthesia. Cesarean delivery was performed under general anesthesia at 34 weeks. Immediately after awake fiberoptic intubation and induction of general anesthesia, capnography waveform was lost with rapid profound oxygen desaturation. A supraglottic airway device was placed, oxygenation maintained with supraglottic airway and positive pressure ventilation throughout case, and the baby was delivered with Apgars of 8 and 9.
|Successful Use of Cangrelor and Heparin for Cardiopulmonary Bypass in a Patient With Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia and End-Stage Renal Disease: A Case Report
Heparin is the only well-established anticoagulant medication for cardiopulmonary bypass making selecting an alternative anticoagulant challenging in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Other anticoagulant medications can cause significant postoperative bleeding, especially in patients with end-stage renal disease. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman requiring aortic valve replacement with a history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and end-stage renal disease. Cangrelor and heparin were successfully used during cardiopulmonary bypass, offering an option for anticoagulation management for a uniquely challenging patient population.
|Extraluminal Use of a Pediatric Bronchial Blocker With Confirmation by Point-of-Care Ultrasound: A Case Report
Lung isolation for pediatric thoracic surgery is especially challenging in a patient with chronic lung infection and need to protect the nonoperative lobes from the spread of infection during anesthesia and surgery. Typically, for pediatric thoracic surgery, a mainstem intubation or placement of an intraluminal bronchial blocker is sufficient for lung isolation. The patient whose case is reported here suffered from a pleuropulmonary blastoma compressing the left lower lobe bronchus and resultant chronic infection involving the left lower lobe. In this unusual situation, to isolate the chronic lung infection and to provide the needed adequate operative conditions, endobronchial intubation of the right, nonoperative lung and placement of an endobronchial blocker into the left lower lobe bronchus were performed. Intraoperative point-of-care ultrasound was then used to confirm ventilation of the right lung segments and absence of air movement in the left upper lobe.
|Efficacy of Sugammadex in Preventing Skin Test Reaction in a Patient With Confirmed Rocuronium Anaphylaxis: A Case Report
The curative role of sugammadex has been challenged in several observations of rocuronium-induced anaphylaxis because sugammadex may not completely encapsulate the molecule of rocuronium. In such conditions, rocuronium remains able to cause immunoglobulin E cross-linkage and the anaphylaxis mechanism can continue. We describe a case of rocuronium-induced anaphylaxis in which clinical improvement followed sugammadex administration. Intradermic skin tests confirmed rocuronium immunoglobulin E–mediated anaphylaxis but also showed intradermal injection of mixing in equal molecular ratio of sugammadex with rocuronium preventing rocuronium anaphylactic skin reaction. This observation demonstrates the efficacy of sugammadex to prevent rocuronium interaction with the skin immune system.
|Nebulized Lidocaine in the Treatment of Refractory Postoperative Laryngospasm: A Case Report
Intraoperative laryngospasm occurs in <1% of cases. Recurrent laryngospasm is rarer. Some risk factors include shared airway and pediatric surgery, secretions, pungent volatile anesthetics, and patient factors, such as smoking and asthma. Conventional management includes the application of positive airway pressure, jaw thrust, the removal of any offending stimuli, deepening anesthesia, or administering muscle relaxants. Nebulized lidocaine is used to anesthetize the vocal cords before awake fiberoptic intubation. This case highlights the novel use of nebulized lidocaine to successfully treat refractory postoperative laryngospasm in a fully conscious adult patient after conventional measures were unsuccessful.
|Failed Awake Intubation for Critical Airway Obstruction Rescued With the Ventrain Device and an Arndt Exchange Catheter: A Case Report
A 71-year-old man with advanced vocal cord carcinoma presented with severe airway obstruction. Therapeutic anticoagulation with enoxaparin complicated management. Failure of an oral awake bronchoscopic intubation was rescued by passing a guidewire through the working channel and threading an Arndt exchange catheter into the trachea under videoscopic vision. Ventilation with the Ventrain device lasting 40 minutes (15 L/min, inspiration/expiration 1:1, 15 breaths/min), during IV anesthesia with muscle paralysis, resulted in excellent blood gas values until placement of the tracheal cannula. This case report highlights the effectiveness of a novel ventilation technique that should be considered as back-up when bronchoscopic intubation fails.
|Localized Corticosteroid Injections for Malignant Joint Pain in the Oncologic Population: A Case Series
Pain is a common issue that is present in cancer survivors as well as those with active malignant processes. Despite opioid analgesics and adjuvant therapies such as systemic corticosteroids, many patients have persistent localized pain. We describe a case series of 3 cancer patients who have concurrent hip- and greater trochanteric–related pain. We performed a single-insertion-site, ultrasound-guided injection to target both the intra-articular hip and greater trochanteric bursa for each patient. All patients reported an improvement in pain symptoms and function with no major complications. Targeted corticosteroid injections provide a potential for relief of malignant joint pain.
|Low-Dose Intrathecal Ziconotide for Spasticity From Primary Lateral Sclerosis: A Case Report
Spasticity can be very debilitating and painful. We present a case of severe spasticity from primary lateral sclerosis refractory to intrathecal baclofen in doses up to 1100 μg/d. Baclofen was weaned down and switched to intrathecal ziconotide at 0.6 μg/d. The dose was then titrated up to 3 μg/d with excellent control of spasticity. This case suggests that low-dose intrathecal ziconotide should be considered in patients with lower extremity spasticity refractory to intrathecal baclofen.
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos