Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery

Current approaches to cleft lip revision
Purpose of review Cleft lip repair requires multidisciplinary follow-up throughout a child’s life and often requires lip revision surgery in adolescence to restore function and symmetry of the lip. There is significant variability in the approaches taken for lip repair and therefore a review of current techniques and subsequent guidance to secondary cleft lip repair is warranted. Recent findings New methods of secondary reconstruction can be divided into superficial or muscle related. Recent suggestions for superficial reconstruction include botulinum toxin injection, silicone gel sheeting, local flap reconstruction, fat grafting, and CO2 laser ablation. Suggestions for muscular reconstruction include pedicled prolabial flaps, modified Abbe flap, and orbicularis oris eversion. Summary Secondary cleft lip deformities can be classified as superficial or muscle related. Superficial problems require relatively minor treatments such as laser, local scar revisions, small local flaps, mucosal excision, or fat grafting. Muscle deformities generally require total lip revision and rerepair as a first step to achieving longstanding improvements in lip esthetics and function. Cleft lip revision should only be considered in concert with the patient, be based on the patient’s concerns and desires, and offered at the appropriate timeline to improve social integration and/or psychosocial wellbeing. Correspondence to Damir Matic, MD, MSc, FRCSC, Associate Professor, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, London Health Sciences Centre, Victoria Hospital Campus, Room E2-646, 800 Commissioners Rd E, London, ON, Canada. Tel.: +1 519 685 8557;. e-mail: Damir.matic Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
An update in facial gender confirming surgery
Purpose of review To summarize current surgical and nonsurgical approaches to facial gender confirming surgery (FGCS) and highlight standards of care and areas of future research. Recent findings Gender nonconforming individuals may encounter considerable internal coping and external social stressors that may contribute to gender-associated dysphoria. FGCS provides patients the ability to align facial appearance with gender identity, using recently described advances in surgical and nonsurgical techniques. The majority of FGCS is performed on transwomen (individuals identifying as female), yielding the more common term of facial feminization surgery (FFS). Although no set protocols or standards are in place, certain procedures are commonly performed to alter sex-determining characteristics of the face, and further research may help define guidelines. As many training programs have minimal exposure to FGCS, promotion of transgender health awareness is paramount for diverse and inclusive surgical training. Summary Although demand for FGCS is increasing, there remains a need for improving surgical approaches, developing evidence-based care guidelines, and implementing education and awareness in training programs. Correspondence to Rahul Seth, MD, University of California San Francisco, 2233 Post Street, 3rd Floor, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA. Tel.: +1 415 885 7494;. fax: +1 415 885 7785; e-mail: rahul.seth Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Update on empty nose syndrome: disease mechanisms, diagnostic tools, and treatment strategies
Purpose of review To discuss the proposed pathophysiology of empty nose syndrome (ENS), summarize and evaluate the role of validated diagnostic tools in the diagnosis of ENS, and review the medical and surgical treatment strategies for patients with ENS. Recent findings Historically, ENS has been associated with a reduction in nasal turbinate size; new data suggest that impaired trigeminal nerve function may also play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. The newly validated empty nose syndrome 6 item questionnaires and Cotton test are steps forward to standardize the diagnosis of ENS. Finally, there has been a marked increase in surgical treatment strategies to reconstitute turbinate volume with various implant materials. Summary The diagnosis of ENS remains controversial but the last several years have seen a rejuvenation of interest in this disease entity. The validated empty nose syndrome 6 item questionnaires and Cotton test provide a standardized and objective means by which to characterize ENS. Prevention of iatrogenic ENS through avoidance of excessive turbinate reduction remains critical in preventing paradoxical nasal obstruction. Nasal humidification, patient education, and treatment of possible concomitant medical conditions (e.g., depression) constitute first lines of treatment. We support the cautious use of these screening tools as adjuncts to clinical decision-making. Although injectable implants to augment turbinate volume show promise as a therapeutic surgical technique, there is insufficient data to fully support their use at this time. Correspondence to Toby O. Steele, MD, Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. E-mail: tosteele Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Contemporary management of frontal sinus fractures
Purpose of review Frontal sinus fracture management is evolving. This article will highlight recent literature and provide an evidence-based algorithm in the contemporary management of frontal sinus fractures. Recent findings The role of transnasal endoscopic treatment of frontal sinus fractures has expanded to include fracture reduction and posterior table reconstruction. Evidence continues to support the safety of nonoperative management in select frontal sinus outflow tract fractures. Summary The management of frontal sinus fractures with frontal sinus outflow tract injury continues to evolve with a trend toward observation and minimally invasive approaches. Restoration of the frontal sinus outflow tracts with transnasal endoscopic techniques is being used increasingly in the acute and delayed setting. For severe fractures, the role of conservative treatment paradigms requires further research. Correspondence to E. Bradley Strong, MD, Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis, 2521 Stockton Blvd., Suite 7200, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. Tel: +1916 734 2801; fax: +1916 703 5011; e-mail: ebstrong Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rib cartilage in Asian rhinoplasty: new trends
Purpose of review Costal cartilage has many advantages over other grafting materials because of its large quantity and high biocompatibility. As a result, it has been considered as a good option for Asian rhinoplasty. However, costal cartilage is difficult to use and is associated with a high complication rate. To avoid the disadvantages and complications of costal cartilage graft, several techniques have been proposed in the literature. This review addresses the conventional uses of costal cartilage in Asian rhinoplasty and recent updates. Recent findings Different techniques have been reported for Asian rhinoplasty using costal cartilage. Solid-block costal cartilage and diced cartilage with or without wrapping materials are widely used for dorsal augmentation. Many different grafting techniques for the tip and septal reconstruction have been reported by numerous surgeons. When using costal cartilage graft, surgeons should pay attention to both graft complications, such as warping or infection, and donor-site morbidity. Several strategies have recently been developed to avoid these complications. Summary This article summarises grafting options for Asian rhinoplasty using costal cartilage and possible complications. This information may assist with proper selection of appropriate techniques for harvesting, carving and grafting costal cartilage. Correspondence to Yong Ju Jang, MD, PhD, Professor, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea. Tel: +82 2 3010 3710; fax: +82 2 489 2773; e-mail: jangyj Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
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Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery

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