Apparent kleptoparasitism in fish—parasitic gnathiid isopods” 10.1007/s00436-018-6152-8
Correction to: Epidemiology of Sulcascaris sulcata (Nematoda: Anisakidae) ulcerous gastritis in the Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta )
The original version of this article contained a mistake in the value of Bar in figure 3 caption. It should be Bar = 200 μm instead of Bar = 500 μm.
Correction to: In vitro schistosomicidal activity of tamoxifen and its effectiveness in a murine model of schistosomiasis at a single dose
The original published version of this article contains error in Tables 1 and 2. Correct tables are presented here.
First report of sparganosis manifested by pleuritis and decreased peripheral blood eosinophils in Jiangsu province, China


Sparganosis is a parasitic infection caused by the metacestode stage of Spirometra mansoni and some other related diphyllobothriidean cestodes. Although various internal organs were involved in sparganum infection, pulmonary and pleural involvement is rarely reported. We herein report an uncommon form of sparganosis manifested by pleuritis and decreased peripheral blood eosinophils. Sparganum worms were found in the pleural effusion accidentally and confirmed by pathological diagnosis. After being treated with praziquantel for 10 days, the patient’s symptoms, laboratory examinations, and imaging findings were improved gradually.

Distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum gp60 subtypes in calf herds of Saxony, Germany


Cryptosporidiosis is a common protozoan parasitic infection that causes diarrhoea in neonatal calves. The high shedding of environmentally resistant oocysts facilitates outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in humans. In total, 58 farms (512 calves) in Germany (Saxony and Brandenburg) were visited three times each. Faecal samples of pre-weaned calves were microscopically examined for oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using Heine staining and were scored with regard to their consistency. Overall, 88.9% of calves tested microscopically positive for Cryptosporidium spp. in at least one sample, and the excretion of oocysts was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with a higher faecal score (diarrhoea). After DNA extraction from pooled farm isolates, 47 samples were successfully subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene (gp60). All isolates belonged to subtype family IIa. IIaA15G2R1 was the most common subtype (present on 66% of the farms), followed by IIaA16G3R1 (13%). Subtypes IIaA14G1R1, IIaA14G2R1, IIaA1612R1, IIaA16G2R1, IIaA17G1R1, IIaA17G2R1, IIaA17G4R1 and IIaA19G2R1 were found sporadically. This is the first description of gp60 subtype IIaA17G4R1 in cattle in Germany.

Combined morphology and DNA-barcoding to identify Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus cystacanths in Atelerix algirus


The acanthocephalan parasite Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus has a global distribution and utilizes isopods and birds as intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively. Occasionally, mammals of various orders can act as paratenic hosts. In hedgehogs, severe cases have been reported in juvenile specimens due to secondary infections, as a consequence of complete penetrations of the intestinal wall by cystacanths. In a 66-month study period, we found seven larvae of this parasite encysted in both, the peritoneal cavity and intestine of the Algerian hedgehog, Atelerix algirus in Majorca. Morphology alone was insufficient to identify the species, due to the lack of previous reports and taxonomy-informative characters. In the present report, we combined the use of morphology and the DNA-barcoding approach to confirm to identify cystacanths as P. cylindraceus. This is the first report of this parasite in this hedgehog species. The epidemiological implications will be discussed, including the risk of zoonosis and the importance of using modern approaches to identify immature acanthocephalan larvae in wildlife hosts.

Intestinal injury caused by Eimeria spp. impairs the phosphotransfer network and gain weight in experimentally infected chicken chicks


Parasitic infections caused by protozoan belonging to genus Eimeria are considered important for the poultry industry, due to their severe intestinal lesions and high mortality rates, causing significant economic losses. Although several mechanisms of coccidiosis pathogenesis are known, the effects of this infection on intestinal enzymes linked to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism, as creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK), remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether coccidiosis impairs enzymes linked ATP metabolism in the intestine of chicken chicks. For this, 42 animals that were 2 days old were divided into two groups: uninfected (the negative control group) and experimentally infected on second day of life (the positive control group). On days 5, 10, and 15 post-infection (PI), fecal samples were collected for oocyst counts; intestinal tissue was collected in order to evaluate CK, AK, and PK activities, as well as parameters of the oxidative stress and histopathology. On days 10 and 15 PI, infected animals showed high counts of oocysts in fecal samples and intestinal lesions compared to the control group. Cytosolic CK activity was higher in infected animals on days 10 and 15 PI compared to the control group, while mitochondrial CK activity was lower on days 5, 10, and 15 PI. Also, AK activity was lower in infected animals on days 10 and 15 PI compared to control group, while no differences were observed between groups regarding PK activity. In relation to parameters of oxidative stress, intestinal lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels were higher in infected animals on days 10 and 15 PI compared to the control group, while non-protein thiol levels were lower on day 10 PI. On the 15th day, infected animals had lower body weight (P < 0.05). Based on this evidence, inhibition of mitochondrial CK activity causes an impairment of intestinal energetic homeostasis possibly through depletion on ATP levels, although the cytosolic CK activity acted as an attempt to restore the mitochondrial ATP levels through a feedback mechanism. Moreover, the impairment on energy metabolism appears to be mediated by excessive production of intestinal ROS, as well as oxidation of lipids and thiol groups.

Oral infection of mice and host cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi strains from Mexico


Oral infection by Trypanosoma cruzi has been responsible for frequent outbreaks of acute Chagas disease in the north of South America and in the Amazon region, where T. cruzi genetic group TcI predominates. TcI strains from different geographical regions have been used in oral infection in mice, but there is no information about strains from Mexico where TcI is prevalent. Here, we analyzed four Mexican strains as concerns the course of oral infection, the ability to invade host cells in vitro, and the profile of metacyclic trypomastigote surface molecules gp82 and gp90 that are implicated in parasite internalization. Oral infection of mice with metacyclic forms of all strains resulted in reduced blood and tissue parasitism, and mild to moderate inflammatory process in the heart/skeletal muscle. They expressed pepsin-resistant gp82 and gp90 molecules at high levels and invaded host cells poorly in full nutrient medium and efficiently under nutrient-deprived condition. The properties exhibited by Mexican strains were similar to those displayed by TcI strains from other geographical regions, reinforcing the notion that these features are common to the genetic group TcI as a whole.

Antarctophthirus microchir infestation in synanthropic South American sea lion ( Otaria flavescens ) males diagnosed by a novel non-invasive method


Antarctophthirus microchir is a sucking louse species belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae and has been reported to parasitize all species of the subfamily Otariinae, the sea lions. Former studies on this ectoparasite mainly required fixation, immobilization, or death of host species and especially examinations of adult male sea lions are still very rare. Between March and May 2018, adult individuals of a unique “urban” bachelor group of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living directly in the city of Valdivia, Chile, were studied regarding their ectoparasite infestation status. For first time, a non-invasive method in the form of a lice comb screwed on a telescopic rod and grounded with adhesive tape was used for sample taking process. Overall, during combing different stages of A. microchir were detected in 4/5 O. flavescens individuals, especially at the junction between the back and hind flippers. Our findings represent the first report of A. microchir infesting individuals of this synanthropic colony and fulfilling complete life cycle in a sea lion group despite inhabiting freshwater and in absence of females/pups. Our “telescopic lice comb apparatus” offers a new strategy to collect different stages of ectoparasites and a range of epidermal material, such as fur coat hair and superficial skin tissue for a broad spectrum of research fields in wildlife sciences in an unmolested and stress reduced manner.

On the occurrence and molecular identification of Contracaecum larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Mugil cephalus from Turkish waters


Anisakis and Contracaecum species are fish borne zoonotic nematodes. In our previous studies, other larval anisakid and raphidascarid nematodes, Anisakis and Hysterothylacium species, were genetically identified in marine fish from Turkish waters. However, there is no information on molecular identification of larval Contracaecum species in marine fish from Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this study was only to investigate the presence and molecular identification of Contracaecum species in commonly commercialized marine fish from Turkish waters. A total of 475 marine fish, which belong to 21 different species, were sampled from the Aegean (FAO 37.3.1), Mediterranean (FAO 37.3.2), and Black Sea (FAO 37.4.2). The prevalence of Contracaecum L3 larvae in the Aegean Sea was identified as 10% in Mugil cephalus. All Contracaecum L3 larvae were molecularly characterized with RFLP targeting the ITS region and rrnS gene. Moreover, all larvae were analyzed by sequencing of ITS region, rrnS and cox2 gene. All Contracaecum larvae were identified as C. overstreeti based on the cox2 sequence analysis. This is the first report of C. overstreeti larvae in M. cephalus as paratenic and intermediate hosts. Furthermore, the analysis reveals novel information on ITS region. Additionally, the rrnS gene of C. overstreeti was also achieved and deposited in Genbank for the first time. The PCR-RFLP patterns of the ITS region and rrnS gene from C. overstreeti were presented in the present study. Consequently, the presence of C. overstreeti larvae in M. cephalus from the Aegean Sea may also potentially capable of inducing allergic sensitization in humans.



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