Mycological Progress

Two new taxa of the Auriscalpium vulgare species complex with substrate preferences

Abstract

Basidiomes of the cone-inhabiting Auriscalpium species, usually regarded as A. vulgare Gray, are widely distributed across the Northern Hemisphere and easily recognized because of their unique macro-morphology. However, phylogenetic diversity patterns among different geographic populations and different substrates are completely unknown. In this study, samples of A. vulgare s.l. in different areas of China were studied phylogenetically, morphologically, and ecologically. For comparison, European collections of A. vulgare were included. Our phylogenetic analyses, inferred from partial nucleotide sequences including the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2 with the 5.8S nrDNA, the large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (nrLSU), and the region between the conserved domain 6 and 7 of the gene for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), indicated that three phylogenetic species can be recognized, which correspond well with morphological and ecological evidence. Therefore, three species, having distinct substrate preferences, are documented here, namely the well-known A. vulgare, and the newly described species A. orientale and A. microsporum. Auriscalpium vulgare is widely distributed throughout the northern temperate Eurasia and North America, while the new species have been known mainly from subtropical East Asia and northeastern India to date.

Muyocopron heveae sp. nov. and M. dipterocarpi appears to have host-jumped to rubber

Abstract

Muyocopron species were collected from dried branches of Hevea brasiliensis in Thailand. These were studied and compared with related taxa, based on the evidence from morphology and phylogenetic analyses of a combined LSU and SSU DNA sequence data. A new host record, Muyocopron dipterocarpi, and a new species, Muyocopron heveae, are described and illustrated. Phylogenetic analyses of combined LSU and SSU sequence data indicated that our strains cluster in Muyocopron and the new taxon forms a distinct clade as a new species in the genus. The germinating ascospores produced appressoria which suggests that it has an endophytic lifestyle. Muyocopron dipterocarpi appears to have host-jumped to rubber, which had been introduced to Thailand.

A new species of Alpestrisphaeria (Dothideomycetes) with monodictys-like anamorph and revision of three Monodictys species

Abstract

Endophytic fungal strains isolated from the coastal plant Vitex rotundifolia in Taiwan were accommodated in Alpestrisphaeria according to an analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Based on this analysis and on a unique monodictys-like anamorph, the species, A. monodictyoides, is proposed as new. Type specimens of three species of Monodictys were investigated. A new name is proposed for the invalid M. indica S.M. Singh & Barde (non M. indica K. Chowdhery & Rehill); the invalid M. saudii is considered sclerotium-like structures of a sterile mycelium and excluded from any taxonomic naming; M. torulosa is synonymized with M. fluctuata. Early stages of conidium ontogeny are suggested as potential phylogenetically significant markers for a future revision of the polyphyletic genus Monodictys.

The genus Inonotus in Africa

Abstract

A survey of the genus Inonotus in Africa is provided with a key and descriptions of nine species.

On Craterocolla and Ditangium (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota)

Abstract

In the present paper, we select a neotype for Tremella cerasi and prove that it is conspecific with Ditangium insigne (the genus type of Ditangium). We argue that Ditangium should be restored as a correct genus for T. cerasi, while the currently used generic name Craterocolla is to be treated as its younger synonym. Morphological, ecological and genetic variability of Ditangium cerasi is discussed, and two other Ditangium species are described—D. altaicum, sp. nov. and D. incarnatum, comb. nov. In addition, Exidia fulva is combined in Globulisebacina.

Kevinhydea brevistipitata gen. et sp. nov. and Helicoma hydei sp. nov., (Tubeufiaceae) from decaying wood habitats

Abstract

Kevinhydea brevistipitata gen. et sp. nov., and Helicoma hydei sp. nov., collected on decaying wood in terrestrial and freshwater habitats, respectively, are described and illustrated. Kevinhydea brevistipitata, the type species for a novel monotypic genus (Kevinhydea), is characterized by its macronematous, short conidiophores, and dictyosporous conidia. Helicoma hydei morphologically resembles H. guttulatum, but they are phylogenetically distinct species. Phylogenetic analyses of combined LSU, ITS, and TEF1α sequence data of 63 taxa were carried out to infer the phylogenetic affinity of new taxa within the family Tubeufiaceae. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses for the genus Helicoma, comprising 33 taxa, were performed separately to justify the new species H. hydei. Kevinhydea brevistipitata and Helicoma hydei are phylogenetically distinct from other species in Tubeufiaceae. A morphological comparison of dictyosporous hyphomycete genera in Tubeufiaceae is provided.

An updated phylogeny and diversity of Phylloporia (Hymenochaetales): eight new species and keys to species of the genus

Abstract

Phylloporia is shown to be monophyletic according to molecular sequence data. Morphologically, Phylloporia is characterized by annual or perennial basidiomata, a monomitic to dimitic hyphal system, generally presenting a duplex context, absence of setae, and abundant tiny, thick-walled and colored basidiospores. In this study, specimens from China and Brazil a priori identified to Phylloporia species were revised. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nuc 28S rDNA showed that they nested within the Phylloporia clade, in which they formed eight new terminal lineages. According to this result and additional morphological and ecological data (host relationships), these eight lineages are described as eight new species: Phylloporia atlantica, P. cystidiolophora, P. montana, P. perangusta, P. rattanicola, P. solicola, P. splendida, and P. subpulla. Detailed descriptions with illustrations are provided for these new species, and their relationships with similar or allied species are discussed. An identification key for all accepted 56 species with a synoptic description is provided, and two keys to neotropical and Asian Phylloporia species are also provided.

Progress on the phylogeny of the Omphalotaceae: Gymnopus s. str., Marasmiellus s. str., Paragymnopus gen. nov. and Pusillomyces gen. nov.

Abstract

Omphalotaceae is the family of widely distributed and morphologically diverse marasmioid and gymnopoid agaric genera. Phylogenetic studies have included the family in Agaricales, grouping many traditionally and recently described genera of saprotrophic or parasitic mushroom-producing fungi. However, some genera in Omphalotaceae have not reached a stable concept that reflects monophyletic groups with identifiable morphological circumscription. This is the case of Gymnopus and Marasmiellus, which have been the target of two opposing views: (1) a more inclusive Gymnopus encompassing Marasmiellus, or (2) a more restricted Gymnopus (s. str.) while Marasmiellus remains a distict genus; both genera still await a more conclusive phylogenetic hypothesis coupled with morphological recognition. Furthermore, some new genera or undefined clades need more study. In the present paper, a phylogenetic study was conducted based on nrITS and nrLSU in single and multilocus analyses including members of the Omphalotaceae, more specifically of the genera belonging to the /letinuloid clade. The resulting trees support the view of a more restricted Gymnopus and a distinct Marasmiellus based on monophyletic and strongly supported clades on which their morphological circumscriptions and taxonomic treatments are proposed herein. The results also provide evidence for the description of two new genera: Paragymnopus and Pusillomyces. Pusillomyces manuripioides sp. nov. (type species of the genus) is described with morphological description, taxonomic and ecological remarks, and illustrations.

Anupama : a new genus of Biannulariaceae (Agaricales) from tropical India

Abstract

Anupama gen. nov. is described from the Kerala State of India with a single species, Anupama indica sp. nov. In the field, Anupama can be characterized by its small to medium-sized, tricholomatoid basidiocarps lacking veils of any kind and growing on the soil, a brownish pileus with a glabrous, somewhat waxy surface, crowded, sinuate lamellae, and a solid, orange-gray stipe tapering towards the base. The diagnostic microscopic features include hyaline, smooth, inamyloid basidiospores, abundant cheilocystidia and scarce pleurocystidia, subregular lamellar trama, a cutis-type pileipellis, and clamped hyphae. The multigene phylogenetic analyses based on two independent data matrices revealed the taxonomic position of Anupama within the Biannulariaceae, in which it formed a lineage distinct from other genera. A taxonomic description, photographs of the basidiocarps in their natural habitat and the microscopic structures, comparisons with phenetically and phylogenetically related genera of the family, phylograms showing the placement of the new genus, and a key to the genera of the family are provided.

Mycological Progress

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