The Epidemiology, Evolution, and Treatment of KPC-Producing Organisms

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review is to investigate the evolution and epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing organisms and the current and future treatment options for infections caused by KPC-producing isolates.

Recent Findings

The emergence of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae producing carbapenemases globally has increased the challenges in treating infections caused by these organisms. One of the prominent mechanisms of resistance is the production of KPC enzymes. Infections caused by organisms producing KPCs have limited treatment options and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. The rapid rise of KPC-producing organisms necessitated the use of drugs with pharmacokinetic and toxicity limitations, including polymyxins, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and aminoglycosides. The availability of new beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations that are effective against KPC-producing organisms represent an advance in safety and efficacy. Several agents are currently being studied that have activity against KPC-producing organisms and appear to represent promising additions to our armamentarium.

Summary

KPC-producing organisms cause infections with high morbidity and mortality. Limited treatment options are available, though new therapies have been developed. Pipeline agents are likely to have a place in therapy for the treatment of infections caused by KPC-producing isolates.

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The Epidemiology, Evolution, and Treatment of KPC-Producing Organisms

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