Utilizing time-frequency amplitude and phase synchrony measure to assess feedback processing in a gambling task

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Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Adreanna T.M. Watts, Anne V. Tootell, Spencer T. Fix, Selin Aviyente, Edward M. Bernat
The neurophysiological mechanisms involved in the evaluation of performance feedback have been widely studied in the ERP literature over the past twenty years, but understanding has been limited by the use of traditional time-domain amplitude analytic approaches. Gambling outcome valence has been identified as an important factor modulating event-related potential (ERP) components, most notably the feedback negativity (FN). Recent work employing time-frequency analysis has shown that processes indexed by the FN are confounded in the time-domain and can be better represented as separable feedback-related processes in the theta (3–7 Hz) and delta (0–3 Hz) frequency bands. In addition to time-frequency amplitude analysis, phase synchrony measures have begun to further our understanding of performance evaluation by revealing how feedback information is processed within and between various brain regions. The current study aimed to provide an integrative assessment of time-frequency amplitude, inter-trial phase synchrony, and inter-channel phase synchrony changes following monetary feedback in a gambling task. Results revealed that time-frequency amplitude activity explained separable loss and gain processes confounded in the time-domain. Furthermore, phase synchrony measures explained unique variance above and beyond amplitude measures and demonstrated enhanced functional integration between medial prefrontal and bilateral frontal, motor, and occipital regions for loss relative to gain feedback. These findings demonstrate the utility of assessing time-frequency amplitude, inter-trial phase synchrony, and inter-channel phase synchrony together to better elucidate the neurophysiology of feedback processing.

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Utilizing time-frequency amplitude and phase synchrony measure to assess feedback processing in a gambling task

Evaluation of a portable low-budget three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry system for nasal analysis

Three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry has reached high standards and accuracy but is mainly conducted with stationary and expensive systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a low-budget portable system with special regard to the gracile and challenging nasal region.

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Evaluation of a portable low-budget three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry system for nasal analysis

Evaluation of a portable low-budget three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry system for nasal analysis

Three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry has reached high standards and accuracy but is mainly conducted with stationary and expensive systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a low-budget portable system with special regard to the gracile and challenging nasal region.

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Evaluation of a portable low-budget three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry system for nasal analysis

Utilizing time-frequency amplitude and phase synchrony measure to assess feedback processing in a gambling task

alertIcon.gif

Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Adreanna T.M. Watts, Anne V. Tootell, Spencer T. Fix, Selin Aviyente, Edward M. Bernat
The neurophysiological mechanisms involved in the evaluation of performance feedback have been widely studied in the ERP literature over the past twenty years, but understanding has been limited by the use of traditional time-domain amplitude analytic approaches. Gambling outcome valence has been identified as an important factor modulating event-related potential (ERP) components, most notably the feedback negativity (FN). Recent work employing time-frequency analysis has shown that processes indexed by the FN are confounded in the time-domain and can be better represented as separable feedback-related processes in the theta (3–7 Hz) and delta (0–3 Hz) frequency bands. In addition to time-frequency amplitude analysis, phase synchrony measures have begun to further our understanding of performance evaluation by revealing how feedback information is processed within and between various brain regions. The current study aimed to provide an integrative assessment of time-frequency amplitude, inter-trial phase synchrony, and inter-channel phase synchrony changes following monetary feedback in a gambling task. Results revealed that time-frequency amplitude activity explained separable loss and gain processes confounded in the time-domain. Furthermore, phase synchrony measures explained unique variance above and beyond amplitude measures and demonstrated enhanced functional integration between medial prefrontal and bilateral frontal, motor, and occipital regions for loss relative to gain feedback. These findings demonstrate the utility of assessing time-frequency amplitude, inter-trial phase synchrony, and inter-channel phase synchrony together to better elucidate the neurophysiology of feedback processing.

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Utilizing time-frequency amplitude and phase synchrony measure to assess feedback processing in a gambling task

From molecules to patients: exploring the therapeutic role of soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators

Journal Name: Biological Chemistry
Issue: Ahead of print

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From molecules to patients: exploring the therapeutic role of soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators

CD45RO regulates the HIV-1 gp120-mediated apoptosis of T cells by activating Lck

Journal Name: Biological Chemistry
Issue: Ahead of print

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CD45RO regulates the HIV-1 gp120-mediated apoptosis of T cells by activating Lck

Pathogenesis-Related Proteins and Peptides as Promising Tools for Engineering Plants with Multiple Stress Tolerance

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Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018
Source:Microbiological Research
Author(s): Sajad Ali, Bashir Ahmad Ganai, Azra N Kamili, Ajaz Ali Bhat, Zahoor Ahmad Mir, Javaid Akhter Bhat, Anshika Tyagi, Sheikh Tajamul Islam, Muntazir Mushtaq, Prashant Yadav, Sandhya Rawat, Anita Grover
Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a group of diverse molecules that are induced by phytopathogens as well as defense related signaling molecules. They are the key components of plant innate immune system especially systemic acquired resistance (SAR), and are widely used as diagnostic molecular markers of defense signaling pathways. Although, PR proteins and peptides have been isolated much before but their biological function remains largely enigmatic despite the availability of new scientific tools. The earlier studies have demonstrated that PR genes provide enhanced resistance against both biotic and abiotic stresses, which make them one of the most promising candidates for developing multiple stress tolerant crop varieties. In this regard, plant genetic engineering technology is widely accepted as one of the most fascinating approach to develop the disease resistant transgenic crops using different antimicrobial genes like PR genes. Overexpression of PR genes (chitinase, glucanase, thaumatin, defensin and thionin) individually or in combination have greatly uplifted the level of defense response in plants against a wide range of pathogens. However, the detailed knowledge of signalling pathways that regulates the expression of these versatile proteins is critical for improving crop plants to multiple stresses, which is the future theme of plant stress biology. Hence, this review provides an overall overview on the PR proteins like their classification, role in multiple stresses (biotic and abiotic) as well as in various plant defense signaling cascades. We also highlight the success and snags of transgenic plants expressing PR proteins and peptides.

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Pathogenesis-Related Proteins and Peptides as Promising Tools for Engineering Plants with Multiple Stress Tolerance