Trimethylamine N ‐oxide (TMAO): breathe new life

Abstract Associations between an elevated level of systemic trimethylamine N‐oxide (TMAO) and an increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events have been proposed in recent years. Increasing experimental studies suggest a possible impact of TMAO in cardiovascular diseases. TMAO, the oxygenated product of TMA, is belonging to the class of amine oxides. Most of TMA derived from the bacterial metabolism of choline and L‐carnitine is absorbed into the bloodstream, and then TMA is rapidly oxidized to TMAO by flavin‐containing monooxygenase‐3 (FMO3), a hepatic enzyme. Recent years, there has been considerable interest in the role of TMAO in various pathological states. Here we discuss the biosynthesis of TMAO and emerging clinical studies that have assessed TMAO as a biomarker for vari…

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Trimethylamine N ‐oxide (TMAO): breathe new life

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