The relationship between vegetable/fruit consumption and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan

Abstract

Vegetable and fruit consumption may have a protective effect against several types of cancers. However, the effect on biliary cancers is unclear. We investigated the association of vegetable/fruit consumption with the risks of gallbladder cancer (GBC), intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC) and extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC) in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model, and the exposure level was categorized into quartiles, with the lowest group used as the reference. A total of 80,371 people aged 45–74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999, and followed up for 1,158,632 person-years until 2012, during which 133 GBC, 99 IHBDC, and 161 EHBDC cases were identified. Increased consumption of total vegetable and fruit was significantly associated with a decreased risk of EHBDC (HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29–0.81 for the highest group; P-trend = 0.005). From the analysis of relevant nutrients, significantly decreased risk of EHBDC was associated with folate and insoluble fiber (HR = 0.48, 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28–0.85, 0.31–0.88 for the highest group; P-trend = 0.010, 0.023; respectively), and a significant trend of decreased EHBDC risk associated with vitamin C was observed (P-trend = 0.029). No decreased risk of GBC and IHBDC was found. Our findings suggest that increased vegetable/fruit consumption may decrease a risk of EHBDC, and folate, vitamin C, and insoluble fiber might be key contributors to the observed protective effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

from #Cancer-Sfakianakis via simeraentaxei on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2eO6262
via IFTTT Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026182 & 00306932607174

The relationship between vegetable/fruit consumption and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan

Inhibition of SRC family kinases reduces myeloid-derived suppressor cells in head and neck cancer

Abstract

SRC family kinases (SFKs), a group of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, modulate multiple cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. SFKs display aberrant activity in progressive stages of human cancers. However, the precise role of SFKs in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) signaling network is far from clear. In this study, we found that the inhibition of SFKs activity by dasatinib effectively reduced the tumor size and population of MDSCs in the HNSCC mouse model. Molecular analysis indicates that phosphorylation of LYN, rather than SRC, was inhibited by dasatinib treatment. Next, we analyzed LYN expression by immunostaining and found that it was over expressed in the human HNSCC specimens. Moreover, LYN expression in stromal cells positively correlated with myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) makers CD11b and CD33 in human HNSCC. The dual positive expression of LYN in epithelial and stromal cells (EPI+SRT+) was associated with unfavorable overall survival of HNSCC patients. These findings indicate that SFKs may be a potential target for an effective immunotherapy of HNSCC by decreasing MDSCs and moreover, LYN will have an impact on such therapeutic strategy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

from #Cancer-Sfakianakis via simeraentaxei on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2f6Gq2M
via IFTTT Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026182 & 00306932607174

Inhibition of SRC family kinases reduces myeloid-derived suppressor cells in head and neck cancer

Associations between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention recommendations and biomarkers of inflammation, hormonal and insulin response

Abstract

Adherence to the 2007 WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations has been associated with lower cancer risk but the underlying biological mechanisms have not been elucidated. We utilized dietary and lifestyle data from 11,342 women in the Nurses’ Health Study and 8,136 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, to investigate associations between adherence scores and markers of inflammation, hormonal and insulin response. Two scores ranging from 0 to 3 were constructed to assess adherence to the energy balance-related recommendations (weight management, physical activity, energy density); and the plant, animal foods and alcohol intake recommendations; with higher scores indicating greater adherence. The following biomarkers were assessed in plasma samples donated by chronic disease-free women (1990) and men (1994): C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNFαR2) and adiponectin for inflammation; estrone and estradiol for hormonal response in women, C-peptide for hyperinsulinemia; and triglycerides/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio for insulin resistance. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses, we estimated relative concentrations of biomarkers across adherence categories. There was a significant trend of lower (higher for adiponectin) biomarker concentrations with higher adherence to the energy balance recommendations (all P-trend<0.0001). Comparing the highest (3) to the lowest recommendation category (0-1), the percent difference in relative concentrations of biomarkers was CRP, -69%; IL6, -41%; TNFαR2, -13%; adiponectin, +36; C-peptide, -43%; TG/HDL, -43%; estrone, -31%; and estradiol, -43%; in women; and CRP, -59%; IL6, -42%; TNFαR2, -10%; adiponectin, +22%; C-peptide, -44%; and TG/HDL, -40%; in men. In contrast, associations between adherence to the plant, animal foods and alcohol intake recommendations and biomarker concentrations were weaker, and mostly nonsignificant. The healthier biomarker profile associated with greater adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations is driven mainly by adherence to the energy balance-related recommendations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

from #Cancer-Sfakianakis via simeraentaxei on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2f2IniL
via IFTTT Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026182 & 00306932607174

Associations between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention recommendations and biomarkers of inflammation, hormonal and insulin response

Prostate external beam radiotherapy combined with high-dose-rate brachytherapy: dose-volume parameters from deformably-registered plans correlate with late gastrointestinal complications

Abstract

Background

Derivation of dose-volume correlated with toxicity for multi-modal treatments can be difficult due to the perceived need for voxel-by-voxel dose accumulation. With data available for a single-institution cohort with long follow-up, an investigation was undertaken into rectal dose-volume effects for gastrointestinal toxicities after deformably-registering each phase of a combined external beam radiotherapy (EBRT)/high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy prostate treatment.

Methods

One hundred and eighteen patients received EBRT in 23 fractions of 2 Gy and HDR (TG43 algorithm) in 3 fractions of 6.5 Gy. Results for the Late Effects of Normal Tissues — Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic toxicity assessments were available with a median follow-up of 72 months. The HDR CT was deformably-registered to the EBRT CT. Doses were corrected for dose fractionation. Rectum dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were calculated in two ways. (1) Distribution-adding: parameters were calculated after the EBRT dose distribution was 3D-summed with the registered HDR dose distribution. (2) Parameter-adding: the EBRT DVH parameters were added to HDR DVH parameters. Logistic regressions and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to correlate parameters with late peak toxicity (dichotomised at grade 1 or 2).

Results

The 48–80, 40–63 and 49–55 Gy dose regions from distribution-adding were significantly correlated with rectal bleeding, urgency/tenesmus and stool frequency respectively. Additionally, urgency/tenesmus and anorectal pain were associated with the 25–26 Gy and 44–48 Gy dose regions from distribution-adding respectively. Parameter-adding also indicated the low-mid dose region was significantly correlated with stool frequency and proctitis.

Conclusions

This study confirms significant dose-histogram effects for gastrointestinal toxicities after including deformable registration to combine phases of EBRT/HDR prostate cancer treatment. The findings from distribution-adding were in most cases consistent with those from parameter-adding. The mid-high dose range and near maximum doses were important for rectal bleeding. The distribution-adding mid-high dose range was also important for stool frequency and urgency/tenesmus. We encourage additional studies in a variety of institutions using a variety of dose accumulation methods with appropriate inter-fraction motion management.

Trial registration

NCT NCT00193856. Retrospectively registered 12 September 2005.

from #Cancer-Sfakianakis via simeraentaxei on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2e6qviu
via IFTTT Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026182 & 00306932607174

Prostate external beam radiotherapy combined with high-dose-rate brachytherapy: dose-volume parameters from deformably-registered plans correlate with late gastrointestinal complications

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Older Adult Oncology, Version 2.2016

Cancer is the leading cause of death in older adults aged 60 to 79 years. Older patients with good performance status are able to tolerate commonly used treatment modalities as well as younger patients, particularly when adequate supportive care is provided. For older patients who are able to tolerate curative treatment, options include surgery, radiation therapy (RT), chemotherapy, and targeted therapies. RT can be highly effective and well tolerated in carefully selected patients, and advanced age alone should not preclude the use of RT in older patients with cancer. Judicious application of advanced RT techniques that facilitate normal tissue sparing and reduce RT doses to organs at risk are important for all patients, and may help to assuage concerns about the risks of RT in older adults. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the recent updates to the 2016 NCCN Guidelines for Older Adult Oncology specific to the use of RT in the management of older adults with cancer.

from #Cancer-Sfakianakis via simeraentaxei on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2e6bYTJ
via IFTTT Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026182 & 00306932607174

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Older Adult Oncology, Version 2.2016

Tobacco Cessation Treatment Pathways for Patients With Cancer: 10 Years in the Making

Tobacco use is the most common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States; it accounts for one-third of all cancer deaths and is thought to account for half of preventable cancer deaths. This article describes the Tobacco Treatment Program at a major academic cancer center. Patients and employees may access these services in a number of ways. All current smokers and recent quitters are proactively contacted and invited to participate. Services provided are tailored to the motivational level of individual patients and their immediate medical needs. The treatment pathways we present are based on our experience from the last 10 years in treating more than 5,000 unique patients with around 60,000 patient visits. These pathways include behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy, including first-line, second-line, and off-label medication use. This article describes the program with the goal of providing guidance and ideas to others who are developing treatment programs and providing treatment to tobacco users.

from #Cancer-Sfakianakis via simeraentaxei on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2fxzZs0
via IFTTT Medicine by Alexandros G.Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos,Crete 72100,Greece,tel :00302841026182 & 00306932607174

Tobacco Cessation Treatment Pathways for Patients With Cancer: 10 Years in the Making